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Cornell University Library 
SF 991.D15 1915? 

Diseases of dogs, their causes, symptoms 

3 1924 000 946 685 

The original of tliis bool< is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

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the United States on the use of the text. 


Pressing Points 


Dog Feeding 


thatSPRATT'S Dog Cakes are 
not the ordinary biscuits pro- 
duced simply to satisfy a dog's 
appetite ? Ttiey are made 
with the object of producing 
certain definite results in the 
health of your dog, the most 
important being: 

BODY — because they are made from our pure 
"MEAT FIBRINE," selected wheatmeals. etc. 

2. FULL AND GLOSSY COAT— because the 

blood is fully NOURISHED and RENEWED. 

3. STAMINA AND VIM— because good whole- 
some food gives good health and vigour. 

they are well baited & compel the dog to gnaw. 



Dog Cakes U Puppy Biscuits 

Contain NO Added Sugar, NO Chemicals 

Write to-day for our Biscuit Book and 
Samples of Foods suitable for your dog 

24/25 Fenchurch Street. LONDON, E.C. 

IT IS A DUTY you owe your dog 

always to specify SPRATT'S when 

ordering DOG FOODS. 




£oint to the world-wide fame attained by ^- 


They are in demand throughout the civilised world, and are in 
constant use in the Royal Kennels, and in several of the largest 
English and Continental Hunting establishments. Once introduced 
they are ever afterwsirds used for their efficiency and reliability. A 
sure indication of their popularity is that they have been imitated 
again and again. In spite of competition they have pushed their 
way, on their merits alone, in the confidence of the dog-keeping and 
dog-loving portion of the public. 

Each remedy is sent out in two sizes only, the sample package 
at 1/1, post free, suitable for small consumers, and the Kennel 
Package at 7/6. 




For YeUows, Jaundice, Liver The BEST Canine Stimulant for 

deranscntents Show Condition) weakness, and 

and CONSTIPATION. a bracer for extra exertion. 


Never fail to cure this dire complaint. Don't hesitate, but give 
immediately. They cure colds. 


The most persistent are permanently expelled. No other 
dosing: required. A complete cure in themselves. 



The Simplest and Best Remedy Freely used ffives a healthy coat, 
for Couehs, Asthma, and free from scurf and vermin. 

Bronchitis. 6d. Tablets, post free. 


A Positive cure for Mange of any kind. Eczema, and all 
■kin troubles. 



(Non-Poisonous.) LOTION. 

DStroys all Parasites sind Instant relief while ren 

Vermin. the cause of irritatit 

1/3 post free. 1/3 post free. 



There are many Dog Foods, but only 



The Perfected Food 

A highly concentratecl meal, containing the greatest amount 

of flesh-forming constituents ever submitted (or public favour. 

The result of its use with the daintiest and most delicate 

feeders is marvellous. 




Improves and Strengthens the Digestive Organs, 

aives OIoss to the Coat, Muscle to the Body, 

And from which is obtained the greatest results 
ever experienced in the Canine World. 

To be obtained from all Com Merchants, Grocers, 
and Stores. 



By Specwl Wamnt to HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 


The New Dry Diet for Dogs. 

A dainty miniature dog cake 
weighing about 250 to the pound. 

Containing 20 per cent, of Meat and its Juices, incorporated 
with Ingredients of tlie greatest excellence, and super- 
seding all the best kinds of Dog Cakes hitherto in use. 


The Great Bone Maker, 

10/- per i cwt. Case, Carriage Paid, 


are recommended where a 
change of diet is required. 

Samples post free on application. 

Clarke's Biscuit Factory, 


(Established pver Half a Century.) 




For Buying Anything— 

Furniture, Curios, Poultry, Dress, Plants, a Watch, Cycle, 
Dog, Camera, or anything else — the best way is through 
" The Bazaar, Exchange and Mart " newspaper. In every 
issue are classified announcements of thousands of goods 
for sale, new and second-hand. Where articles are too 
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For Selling Anything 

no better market exists than in " The Bazaar." In nearly 
every household there are scores of things which are so 
much lumber, but which other people want and would 
readily buy. Turn them into money : Private announce- 
ments cost only 1 d. for 3 words (minimum 4d.) per insertion. 

For Exchanging Anything 

for something of equivalent value which you may want 
in its stead there is only one practical way: insert an 
announcement in "The Bazaar, Exchange and Mart" 
giving full particulars. 

For Literary Articles 

of real practical utility to the Amateur there is no journal 
equal to " The Bazaar." Its literary pages are written by 
those who have personal practiced knowledge of their 
subjects, and the information given is clear, concise and 

For Information 

upon any subject you will find this paper most reliable. 
See the number and lucidity and the range of subjects 
covered in the Answers to Correspondents in every issue, 
and if you yourself want to know anything, write to " The 

On sale at all NewsasenU' and Bookstalls, price 2d.; or a 
specimen copy' will be sent, post free, for ii. in itampi, from the 

Offices: Bazaar Buildings^ Drury Lane, London, W.C. 

Bird & Storey's 


As Used by the Leading Dog Breeders and Fanciers. 

DISTEMFEK FILLS (B. & S.'s).— These valuable Pills are a certain cure for 
this most destructive disease, if given immediatel;y on the appearance of the 
first symptoms, and have proved the means of saving the lives of innumerable 
Dogs of all Breeds. 

V/OBM POWDERS (B. & S.'s) are admitted, by all who have tried them, to be 
the best, cheapest^ and most speedy Medicine for the removal of all the 
varieties of Intestinal Worms, from which the Canine race is eo peculiarly 
liable to suffer. 

ALTERATIVE POWDERS (B. & S.'s).— We can strongly recommend these 
Powders to Dog Owners as an infallible cure for Constipation, Liver Com- 

? taints, Indigeetion, &c., and as a safe and reliable Laxative. Being tasteless, 
he Powders can be given to any dog in a little bread and milk, or its 
ordinary food, so that the trouble ana danger of administering "Pills" or 
"Balls are entirely obviated. The " Alteratjgfe Powders" in consequence 
of their great effect as a Cooling and Bloo<PPurifying Medicine are par- 
ticularly useful in all cases of skin disease. 
TONIC PILLS (B. & S.'s). — Unrivalled for Dogs recovering from Distemper and 
other debilitating diseases, as they not only improve the appetite, but also 
strengthen the Digestive Organs and the system generally. 
COUOH PILLS (B. & S.'s).— These should be given immediately on the appear- 
ance of Coughs or Colds, and will be found to effect a speedy and permanent 
PALATABLE PUPPY POWDERS (B. & S.'s).— Almost tasteless and can be 
administered in a small quantity of bread and milk. Given occasionally up 
to 12 months old they act as a preventative of Distemper, Worms, and Con- 
vulsions — the sources of 99 per cent, of puppy mortality. 
!)•" The above Medicines are all retailed in Boxes from Is. (or Post Free, la. lid.) up- 
wards, and prepared in four different strengths, called respectively A, B, C, & D, 
A Strength is suitable for St. Bernards, Boarhounds, &c. 
B „ „ Foxhounds, Retrievers, Greyhounds, 4c. 

C ,, „ Fox Terriers, Dachshunds, &c. 

T> ,, ,. The smaller breeds of Dogs. 

KANOE WASH (B. & S.'.?).— An infallible Remedy for every variety of this most 
troublesome disease. (N.B.— The curative action of this Wash is greatly facili- 
tated by the use of the Aperient Balls.) Is. 9d. per bottle (or Post Free, as. 3d.). 
EAR CANKBB. DROPS (B. & S.'s).— A specific for this painful and troublesome 

complaint. Is. per bottle (or Post Free, Is. Jd.). 
CANINE ECZEMA OINTMENT (B & S.'s).— This ointment has been used 
with marvellous success in many very bad cases of this troublesome Canine 
complaint. (Combined with a course of the above-mentioned " Alterative 
Powders," we have never known it to fail to give relief even in what had 
been considered perfectly hopeless cases. In pots. Is. (Post Free, Is. 31.) and 
2s. 6d. (equal to four small; Post tree, 26. 9d. each). 

\, K.—jLdvice gratia with reference to use of above Bemedlet, 


F L SHARP, Esq., "Ridgemount," Parkstone, Dorset, writes: Jan. 26th, 1910. 

"Dear Sirs,- Speaking from my own experience I may safely recommend j'our prepara- 
tions to all interested fn dogs. Having clearly described the symptoms, the inexperienced 
doK owner may safely leave you to supply the most suitable remedy for the canine invalid, 
as I have hitherto done with marked success.— Yours truly, Fkank h. Sharp. 

Mrs. Bennett, Leigh Hill, Cobham, writes : Nov. 1st, 1909. 

" Sirs,— I am so pleased to be able to tell you that your ' Eczema Ointment has 
coimUtelu cured, my Fox Terrier when the Vet.'s remedies did not do so, and I shall 
always send for the ointment if either of my little dogs gets eczema again. 

BIRD ft STOREY, Camne Chemists, 



Your good master should use 


He would if he knew of it. This is to tell him. 

All animal lovers should use it. Destroys vermin. Improves 
and beautifies dogs' coats. Hygienic, non-poisonous, harm- 
less to the skin. Post Is. 4d, and 2s. 6d. 




Hygienic ^BEDDING 

Is inexpensive, 

and THE BEST for . . 

and OTHE& DOGS. 

Praised by Dog^ Press. Largely used by 

Prize Breeders. 

Sold by Stores and Com Dealers from 

6d. per packet, or 2/7 per Sack. 

Sole Makers — 

City of London Wood-Wool Co.. 

Contractors to H.M. Government^ 
PLOVER ST., Gainsborough rd., 




Now being used by over 80 packs of Hounds, including :— 
Duke of Buccleuch's, Cheshire, Quorn, Belvoir, 
Newmarket and Thurlow, Cleveland, &c., &c. 

Write for list of Testimonials, 


in 2/9, 5/6 and 10/6 bottles. 45/- per gallon. 





BRITISH DpGS. Their Points, Selection, and Show Preparation. 
Third Edition. By eminent specialists. Beautifully illustrated. 
This is the fullest work on the various breeds of dogs kept in 
England. In one volume, demy 8vo,cloth, price 12/6 ne«, by post 13/-. 

of Dogs for the Show Bench, the Field, jsr as Companions, with a 
chapter on Diseases— their Causes and Treat- 
ment. By well-known specialists. Illustrated. 

In cloth, price 10/6 nett, by post 11/-. 

BRITISH TERRIERS. Their Breeding, Manage- 
ment, and Training for Show or Work. An 
excellent book, by J. Maxtee. Copiously illus- 
trated. In cloth, price 3/- nett, by post 3/3. Also 
in two parts, each price if- nett, by post 1/2. 

Part I. English and Welsh Terriers. 

Part II. Scotch and Irish Terriers, and the 

Management and Minor Diseases of 
Terriers in general. 

Directions for the proper education of Dogs, 
botli for the Field and for Companions. Third 
Edition. Many new illustrations and much 
enlarged. In cloth, price 6/6 nett, by post 6/10. 

POPULAR DOG-KEEPINa The General Manage- 
ment and Training of all Kinds of Dogs for Companions and 
Pets, Third Edition, By J. Maxtee, Illustrated. Price i/. «e«, 
by post 1/2. 

THE FOX TERRIER. Its Points. Breeding, Rearing, and Preparing 
for Exhibition. Second Edition. Revised and brought up to date. 
Fully illustrated. Price i/- nett^ by post 1/2. 

THE COLLIE. As a Show Dog, Companion and Worker. Revised by 
J, Maxtee. Third Edition. Illustrated. Price if- nett, by post 1/2. 

THE GREYHOUND. Its Points, Breeding. Rearing, Training, and 
Running. Second Edition. Revised and brought up to date by 
J. Maxtee, assisted by T, B. Rixon. Illustrated. Pfice if- nett, 
by post 1/2. 

THE WHIPPET OR RACE-DOG. How to Breed, Rear, Train, 
Race, and Exhibit the Whippet, the Management of Race Meetings, 
and Original Plans of Courses. By Freeman Lloyd, Second 
Edition. Illustrated. Price il- nett-, by post 1/2. 

Valuable Chapters on the Mother and Puppies, &c. By Surgeon 
W. Gordon Stables, R.N., M.D„ &c. Illustrated. In cloth, price 
1/6 nett, by post 1/9. 

DISEASES OF DOGS. Their Causes, Symptoms, and TreatiUent. 
A book invaluable to Amateurs. Fourth Edition, entirely re- 
written by Alex, C, Piesse, M.R.C.V.S. Price i/- nett, by post 1/2: 
also in cloth gilt, price 2/- nett, by post 2/3. 

London : L. UPCOTT GILL, Bazaar Buildings, Drury Lane. W.C. 

The Diseases 








Author of "British Dogt," "The Poz Terrier" "The Collie," "The St.Bernard," 

•• Z'he Greifhamul" " The Fox Terrier Stud Book," " The Collie Stud Book," 

"The St. Bernard Stud Book," " The Dieeaua of Hor$e>" ix. 

Revised and Enlarged 




"B&P" Kerl&elsPHealthy Dogs. 

We had built up a kennel business before any of our 
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One Kennel and Yard, £7 Ss. Od. Two ditto, £13 Ss. Od. 

Three ditto, £19 Ss. Od. 

Write for New Catalogue No. 181. 

Boulton & Paul, Ltd., Norwich. 

Awarded Gold Medal, Cruft's Show, 14 ruocetnve years. 


In presenting dog-owners with the Fourth Edition of " The 
Diseases of Dogs," the Publisher may be pardoned if he express 
his great satisfaction that this little work has been so generously- 
appreciated that a new edition has been rendered necessary. 
That feeling of satisfaction is, moreover, vastly increased by know- 
ing that the previous editions have been instrumental in saving 
many dogs' lives, and many more from needless suflering. With 
dogs, as with their masters, timely remedies frequently prevent 
serious aUments. 

The Fourth Edition has been carefully revised throughout, and 
no pains have been spared to bring the book up to date as regards 
both the Principles and the Practice of Canine Veterinary 
Siu^ery. Numbers of diseases which did not find a place in the 
previous issues have been included, and it is hoped that by thus 
widening the scope of the book, its usefulness will he correspond- 
ingly increased. Again, what may be termed the general portion 
of the work has been considerably amplified, such details of 
Kennel Management as Housing, Feeding and Grooming^— all of 
which exert a powerful influence upon the dog for good or ill — 
being more fully treated, a feature which it is hoped will find 
favour with dog-owners and tend still more to increase the sphere 
of usefulness of the little book. 

Despite what has been done, difficulties may arise which are 
not provided for in this little Manual. When this is the case, 
a question addressed to The Bazaar, Bazaar Buildings, Drury 
Lane, Ltmdon, W.G., will elicit full information by a Specialist 
in the catetnns of that paper. 





It penetrates the hair and goes to the skin, 
which it cleanses much better than any solid 
soap. (Hairdressers never use solid soap for 
shampooing.) It removes dandruff, stimu- 
lates the growth of hair, and gives the 
coat a healthy, glossy appearance. It also 
prevents eczema and destroys fleas and 
all other insects. 

Use sparingly, a little goes a long way.' 

In bottles, 1/- and 2'-, post free 3d. extra. 
Also in 6d. bottles, post free 3d. extra. 


A. F. SHEHLEY & Co., 



IZTTBODUGTORT,— It is sadd that eveiy man forty years of 
age should be his own doctor, and there is, I think, stLU more reason 
why every man who owns a dog, even without having attained the 
age of forty, should be, in aU simple cases, his own dog doctor ; 
indeed, there is no one so well qualified as the master, for he best 
knows the peculiarities of habit and temperament of his favourite, 
and is therefore in the best position to administer to his ailments 
when "out of sorts." Home treatment may be successfully prac- 
tised if a few fundamental facts are borne in mind and a few ruling 
principles of action observed. 

It should never be forgotten that health is the natural state, and 
that when disease is present, in nine cases out of ten it is the 
master's fault ; and before making the poor beast the receptacle for 
a lot of nasty physic, it should be aaked whether his treatment iz 
governed by that wisdom and care his devoted obedience and fidelity 
have a right to demand. The young gentleman who practises on 
the wonderful self-sacrificing obedience of Neptime, by repeatedly 
sending him into the water in cold weather to swim after nothing- 
need not be astonished if he afterwards finds him curled up in his 
kennel suffering the agonies of rheumatism ; and when darling Fido 
so frightens his mistress with that low moan, succeeded by that 
painful and prolonged howl, with his back arched, his feet tucked in 
towards each other, and vainly toying every possible posture to 
escape the pain, he is merely paying the penalty of that last 
lump of sugar. True, Fido may have had sugar frequently with 
out suffering in this way, but the last lump is the straw that 
breaks the camel's back ; and no surprise need be felt if persistence 
in the kindly meant but objectionable practice induces repeated 
attacks of colic, ending in inflammation, and possibly in death. 



I would particularly impress on all who own dogs — especially young 
owners — that it is not only to their interest, hut it is their duty, to 
be true masters, ruling with firmness and kindness, and providing 
for aU the wants of the animal in lodging, food, and exercise on 
principles of common sense ; for thus only can health be maintained. 
If a dog have not proper food provided at proper times, but ia 
allowed to be the scavenger of the yard and the street, what wonder 
if he become loathsome and diseased, a nuisance to his owner and 
everyone else ? If, on the other hand, he be pampered, petted, and 
stufiFed with tit-bits and sweet cakes, he will lose all kindliness of 
disposition (the great charm of a companion dog), and become a 
morose, peevish, snappish misanthrope, that your friends may praise, 
but dare not pat ; he will lose all beauty of form, all sprightliness 
and elasticity of action, and become an unshapely, asthmatical lump 
of obesity, to whom the slightest physical exertion is a trouble. 
Ladies, who are the great offenders in this way, should remember 
that dogs are never so healthy and happy as when in good working 
condition — that is, when they can take a good gallop without 

AGE, TO DETEHBIZITE. — In the dog there is no trust- 
worthy indication of age, as in the case of horses and cattle. The 
age of puppies can, however, be determined by the Teeth (which 
tee). In grown dogs the teeth are not by any means a certain index, 
for in some they remain white and entire until a considerable age 
has been attained, whilst in others, from disease, they are covered 
with a yellow deposit very early in Ufe. The natural wear and tear 
is governed by accident, the sort of work the dog has been used to, 
and also to some extent by the kind of food he has generally had. 
For instance, dogs that are fed largely upon bones invariably have 
the teeth worn prematurely ; while in dogs which have been foolishly 
allowed to retrieve hard substances, such as stones, the teeth are of 
very little guide in the determination of age. Speaking generally, 
however, after the third or fourth year the dog's teeth begin to show 
a deposit of tartar, and become yellow in comparison with the 
beautiful white enamel of the perfect ones. Moreover, the teeth at 
that age are somewhat worn at the points, and are not so even as 
they were, say, at two years. Again, once the teeth begin to decay 
in a comparatively young dog, such an animal soon exhibits signs of 
ago. The advisability, therefore, of keeping the teeth free from 
tartar deposits will at once be seen. Persons accustomed to have 
dogs constantly about them can generally give a pretty shrewd 
guess as to age, but the most acute observers are often wide of the 
mark, so much do individual animals differ in the indications of age 


they offer to the eye. The approach of old age is evidenced by a 
staidness and gravity of manner, disinclination to active exercise 
except at the call of duty, the eye loses its lustre, and slightly sinks, 
while around it grey hairs appear, which gradually extend over the 
face. In pugs I have observed the black face turn grey at a very 
early age, and the more intense in colour the mask, the earlier this 
change appears. 

AGE TO WHICH DOGS LIVE.— The duration of life in 
the dog varies greatly. Ouvier calculates the length of life of the 
dog to be seven times that of the period of his growth. Blaine says 
he knew a mother and son in good health and vigorous at the ages 
of twenty and twenty-one, and Youatt says the dog has been known 
to linger on till he reached his two and twentieth year ; and oc- 
casionally cases are reported of a much greater age, but I have 
never seen an instance supported by proof. Some time back a 
number of correspondents favoured me with communications on this 
subject in The Bazaar, but only in one case could I feel satisfied 
that the dog had reached the age of twenty years. That dog was 
of no particular breed, and was owned by a farmer near Guildford. 
Dame Juliana Bemers, authoress of the " Book of Hunting," com- 
monly called the "Boke of St. Albyn's," writing of the greyhound, 

says : 

"When he is comyn to the nynthe yere 
Have him to the tannere 
For the best hounde that ever bytche had 
At nynthe yere he is fuU badde." 

Many dogs, however, retain almost pristine vigour until long past 
that age, but, as a rule, at fourteen or fifteen, if not at an earlier 
age, a dog becomes offensive in smell, and in many other ways 
a nuisance. 

AGE OP KtATtTRITT.— The smaller breeds may be said to 
attain full growth in about twelve months from birth; but the 
largest breeds do not arrive at maturity much under two years, and 
there are gradations between these consistent with the varieties. 
First development of oestrum, or "heat," is often taken to be proof 
of maturity in bitches ; but it is an error, and it is detrimental to 
health to allow bitches to breed until full grown. 


medicines are readily taken in the food, and when this is the case it 
saves much trouble and needless alarm and irritation to the dog. In a 
little savoury broth or porridge most dogs will take castopofl, olive oil, 

B 3 


ood-liyer oil, syrup of phosphates, Fowler's solution of arsenic, etc., 
Emd mtmy powders, such as areca-nut, kamala, santonin, etc. Where 
powders are refused in the food, they should he mixed with a little 
butter, lard, honey, or syrup, and placed well back on the tongue. 
To do this, force tlie mouth open by pressing the lips against the 
teeth and gums, and the medicone can then be placed on the tongue 
by an assistant. In the case of large, powerful, and restive dogs 
the mouth can be held open by means of a towel twisted round the 
upper jaw. With small dogs place the animal in such a position 
in a comer that it cannot back ; neyer hold it between the knees, 
which is so often done, for this is to court sickness or injury. As 
soon as the medicine is placed on the tongue the dog's mouth should 
be closed and held shut till he is seen to swallow, but the month 
must not be held so as to interfere with his breathing through his 
nostrils. In giving a pill or bolus the same method should be 
adopted. Of late years, however, the difficulties attending the 
administration of certain nauseous medicines to dogs have been 
largely overcome by the introduction of Messrs. Freeman, of Bir- 
mingham. This firm has hit upon the happy idea of capsuling the 
medicines, and their innovation cannot be too widely known, 
especially by those owners living at a distance from a veterinary or 
other person accustomed to administer a drug. 

In administering liquid medicines which the dog will not take 
voluntarily, it is necessary to drench him. To do so, the ordinaiy 
plans are to use a spoon, or recourse is had to an earthenware or 
strong glass bottle, such as a ginger-beer or a soda-water bottle. 
With the spoon the medicine is generally spilt, and the use of the 
bottle is fraught with great danger, and that from two sources : 
first, the medicine is delivered from the bottle too fast, and la a 
manner that makes it impossible for the dog to swallow, and choking 
is the result ; secondly, there is very great danger of the bottle being 
shivered to pieces between the dog's jaws, lacerating the month, 
throat, etc., and causing serious and dangerous wounds. 

A much better way of giving liquid medicines is to gently raise 
the animal's head, place the fingers in the angle of the lips, and 
draw them outwards, forming a sort of funnel. 

Here it will be well to warn- the over-zealous owner against 
the common but reprehensible practice of separating the teeth. By 
so doing there is considerable risk of the dog being chokedl 
Equally objectionable and almost as common is the habit of pitching 
the animal's throat with a view to facilitating the administration of 
the medicine. 

The dog's stomach being very sensitive, many medicines are at 
iwca rejected, and to prevent this it is sometimes necessary to tie 


him up for half-an-hour after giving the dose, with his head in a 
slightly elevated position. 

Some medicines are so extremely nauseous that their effect on the 
palate causes immediate sickness, and it was specially to meet such 
a case that Mr. Sidney E. Barrett designed the syringe-drencher 
illustrated at Fig. 1. The medicine measure and drencher (Fig. 2), 
which I invented and had made some twenty years ago, was intended 
to answer the same end. 

In giving nauseous medicines— such, for instance, as oil of male- 
fern, which is often prescribed for worms— Mr. Barrett's method is 
excellent. It was, in fact, the giving of that medicine, which I had 
advised for his dog, that suggested the plan to Mr. Barrett, which 
he thus describes : " I gave the drench by means of a glass syringe, 

Fig. 1. Mr. Sidney b. Barrett's Syringe-Drencher for 
GIVING Medicines to Dogs. 

on the end of which I fitted a 3iu. long bit of indiarubber tubing. I 
filled the syringe by pouring the stuff in at the end A (Fig. 1), and 
then placed the piston in its proper position. By putting the 
tube (C) some way beyond the back of the tongue, and then squirt- 
ing the contents of B through C, I avoided leaving a nauseous 
flavour in the dog's mouth." 

My own contrivance was intended as a substitute for a spoon, in 
using which more or less of the medicine is generally spilt ; and for 
the bottle, out of which some people give medicine direct, but with 
gi'eat danger of the dog crvmching the bottle and lacerating his 
mouth with pieces of the glass. It consists of a glass bottle, very 
strongly made, and of about 3oz. (six tablespoonfuls) capacity, the 
mouth being just wide enough to be easily covered with the finger. 
The bottom is drawn out by the glass-blower, and the end formed 
into a rounded nozzle. Over this is stretched and tied a piece of 
indiarubber tubing, into the extreme end of which is inserted a bone 



tube of about IJin. long. The bottle is gi-aduated and correctly 
marked to show measurements of teaspoonfuls and tablespoonfuls, 
so that in case of a number of patients requiring to be drenched — 
say, with a tablespoonful each — six can have their allotted dose 
given without re-measurement or re-filling of the bottle. 

Fig. 2. Dalziel's Measure and Drencher for giving Medicines to Dogs. 

In filling the bottle, the flexible tube is doubled up to prevent 
escape of the fluid, whilst the requisite quantity is poured in at 
the top. The forefinger of the right hand is then placed on the 
mouth, and this completely controls the flow of liquid through 
the tube. The end of the tube -nith the bone in it is then inserted 
well back in the dog's mouth, and the operator having full command 
over the contents of the drencher, by raising 
his forefinger from the mouth of the bottle, 
lets the medicine run fast or slow, as he sees 
the dog swallow, until the full dose has been 
given. This is better suited to giving thin, 
flowing liquids than the mucilaginous drench 
referred to, or even castor oil, which runs 
very slowly. 

Another simple yet effective way of giving 
liquid medicine to a dog is by means of the 
appliance shown at Fig. 3. As wiU be seen 
it consists of a cow's horn from which the 
top and bottom have been sawn. A finger is 
kept over the small opening while the dose 
is poured in the larger one, into which afterwards a cork is fitted. 
The horn can then be stood in any convenient spot until the dog is 

Fig. 3. Medicine Horn. 


ready. With such an appliance there is no risk of broken glass aa 
with the ordinary bottle, and if but the methods before detailed for 
the actual administration of the medicine are followed, not the least 
difficulty will be experienced. 

Clysters. — Occasionally it b necessary to administer medicines 
per rectum. When this is the case, the simplest instrument is the 
iudiarubber ball and pipe ; these are of various sizes, and inexpensive. 

Injections. — These are given by means of syringes of sizes 
suited to the particular case ; there are male and female syringes, 
and bone are preferable to glass ones, as there is danger of injury 
from breakage of the latter. 

Graduated Scale of Medicines. — There are many medicines 
prescribed for dogs that may not be enumerated in this book, and as 
it is desirable that the dose should be known, the following giaduated 
scale may be taken : The dose for our largest dogs of eighteen 
months old and upwards may be taken as the same as for a man. 
A chemi-st, therefore, can always inform the dog-owner the proper 
dose of any drug. Taking, then, the mastiff or St. Bernard as 
requiring a dose we may call one part ; middle-sized dogs may be 
given from half to three-quarters ; terriers of from 201b. to 301b., a 
quarter ; and toy dogs from a twelfth to an eighth part. In regard 
to age : The mature dog, one part ; a year old, three-quarters ; six 
to nine months, half ; and a pup of from four to six weeks, one- 
eighth. The dose must further be graduated by considerations of the 
constitution and strength of the dog. 

DISINFECTANTS. — The value of disinfectants as health- 
preservers is becoming more and more appreciated, and their value 
in the kennel can scarcely be overrated. Of course, it is all-important 
a kennel should be well drained and kept clean, but still, to have it 
perfectly free from putrescent effluvia and to destroy specific con- 
tagion, disinfectants must be resorted to. 

It would be tedious, and it is quite unnecessary, to enumerate all 
the various disinfectants. I will, therefore, briefly refer to a few 
which I consider most suitable for the kennel, omitting several 
excellent in themselves, but too dangerous to be trusted in the 
hands of many who have the cleansing of kennels. 

One thing of importance in the use of disinfectants must be 
noted : It is wasteful, and defeats the object of their use when 
thrown down in quantities irregularly ; the equal distribution of 
them over the whole surface of the kennel at regular intervals is 
both the cheapest and most effectual way of keeping disease at bay. 


Carbolic Acid has been for many years popular. Calvert's and 
M'Dougal's are the best two makes, and care must always be taken 
to use them properly diluted. Instructions for their use are to be 
found upon the bottles. 

Chloride of Lime is one of the best kennel disinfectants ; it 
should not be mixed with a little water and thrown down in a half 
solid form, but when the kennel is of considerable size, get an old 
petroleum barrel, put 71b. into it and fill up with water ; stir it well, 
and apply the clear liquid with a rose watering-can. Of course, tbo 
strength must be kept up by adding fresh chloride of lime from time 
to tim«> 

Condy's tlnid.— Without doubt thUi is alike one of the safest 
and most useful of kennel requisites, for, apart from its disinfectant 
properties, its value in cases of wounds, bites, etc., can hardly be 
over-estimated. It is non-poisonous. 

Isal. — This is one of the most popular of all dSsinfeotants, and 
one that can be recommended with confidence. It is a coal-tar pro- 
duct, and for its discovery we are indebted to Messrs. Newton, 
Chambers & Co., ThorncliSe, Sheffield. It is also a capital insecticide. 

Jsyes' Fluid is another excellent disinfectant, well suited to 
kennel use. It should be employed as directed. Like the preceding 
it is a most useful insecticide. 

Sanitas is the name given to a disinfectant obtained by the 
atmospheric oxidation of turpentine, and containing peroxide of 
hydrogen and camphoric acid. It is manufactured by the Sanitas 
Company, London, and is a thoroughly efficient disinfectant. 

Sulphnrons Acid Oas. — Where there has been distemper or 
other contagious disease lingmng in a kennel for some time, this 
may be used with advantage. It consists simply in burning the 
ttoweiB of sulphur. Take a common frying-pan, or some such iron 
vessel, on it place the sulphur, whicli must be set fire to and burnt, 
the vessel being placed on bricks in the centre of the kennel floor, 
and all apertures having been closed, the fumes will penetrate to 
every crevice. The dogs must not be returned to the kennel until 
it has been thoroughly freed from the gas by ventilation. This 
requires to be used with great care, the fumes being very poisonous. 

Superheated Steam. — Where mange, distemper or other con- 
tagious disease has visited a portable kennel, it would be well to 
have such subjected to the Washington-Lyon process. Its cost it 
trifling and the results are eminently satisfactory. 


EZESGISE. — This has an important bearing on the dog's 
health. There are few more naturally active animals than the dog, 
and it is barbarous to chain or shut him up in a kennel for weeks 
together. Never chain a puppy if you wish him to grow into 
symmetrical form ; he will pull himself out of all true shape. The 
chaining of watch dogs is sometimes a necessity, but even these 
should be allowed freedom several times a day. 

Dogs which are required to be conditioned for either show or work 
will necessarily need more exercise thau the average house or yard 
dog. Again, the kind of exercise will vary considerably with the 
breed, for what would be health-giving to active dogs like collies, 
terriers, and the like, would be most distressing, say, to the average 
bulldog or pug kept purely as companions. For all that, every 
dog should, if possible, receive daily exereiee ; and if such were the 
case the obese monstrosities one so frequently sees would be less 
often met with. Greyhounds, sporting field dogs, and whippets 
should have special exercise to fit them for the particular work re- 
quired of them. For either road-exercise at the outset is the best 
if it is judiciously given, as such tends to harden the feet Toy do^ 
are invariably under-exercised and over-fed, and these, combined 
with in-and-in-breeding, are doubtless largely responsible for the high 
rate of mortality which prevails among certain breeds. To sum up : 
InjudidouB exercise is even more harmful than insufficient exercise, 
and is often responsible for digestive troubles, to say nothing of 
apoplectic fits, etc. No dog, for instance, should be exercised just 
after a full meal He should in fact be treated on much the same 
lines as a human being in that respect. No sane person would think 
of running a race or taking any violent exercise after a good dinner, 
yet there are many owners who are inconsiderate enough to think 
that there is no harm in giving such exercise to their canine charges. 
The dog should be allowed ample time for a meal to digest, and two 
hours would be none too long an interval to elapse between a fuU 
meal and active exercisa At all times the exercise should be regular 
and suited to the age, breed, couBtitution, and condition of the dog. 

PSSSIXI'G. — The importance of judidous feeding cannot be 
overrated ; overfeeding and gross ftieding derange the system, 
causing surfeit, etc. Insufficient and poor food produce rickets in 
puppies, emaciation, and other diseases, and directly incite to bad 
habits— fowl-killing, garbage-eating, filching and stealing, exposing 
the dog to poison and other physical dangers — and tend to destroy 
the dog's moral character. Hard-and-fast rules' in feeding are 


dangeions : age, individual constitution, existing state of health and 
condition, also the demands on the system in exercise or work, and, 
in the case of hitches, in giving support to their young, have all to 
be carefully considered ; hut given common-sense and an ordinary 
knowledge of the qualities of foods on the part of the feeder, nothing 
need be lost. At one time, to put the fact in the words of the 
proverb, people kept " no more dogs than they had hones for "; for 
the house dog was expected to live on the scraps and remnants of 
the bouse food, and the various sporting dogs had their horse-flesh, 
tallow-greaves, and meaJ provided and cooked at the kennels. 

Feed with great regularity, and when the dog or puppy leaves ita 
food, remove the dish till next meal time, for if left standing the 
food may become sour. 

Biscuits. — There are now a great number of manufacturers of 
special foods for dogs, chiefly in the form of biscuits, which are ex- 
ceedingly convenient, save much cooking, and ia many cases are 
unquestionably excellent. In the first edition of this little work, I 
said that after many years' trial I was convinced that the Meat 
Fibrine Cakes, as a staple dog food, could not be excelled ; after 
another twenty years' experience, I can repeat the opinion respect- 
ing these hiscuits with greater force, for the manufacturers have 
kept the quality and suitability of the Fibrine Cakes up to the 
requirements of the day ; and this I say without intending to 
disparage any of the other varieties of biscuits of which I have had 
less experience. Fish biscuits are much advertised, and used by 
many, some of whom, men of large experience, speak in the highest 
terms of them. Dogs will eat fish biscuits readily, and even work- 
ing bounds are said to thrive upon them. 

SXeal. — Good oatmeal and barley-meal, im small quantities, are 
both useful foods for doga when well cooked, while of the hound- 
meal class Rodnim is certainly one of the beat. 

Eorae-flesh ia excellent when sound, but town purchasers should 
beware of getting it supplied salted, or from animala slaughtered for 
glanders or other disease that may reproduce itself. Again, not a 
little of the horse-flesh upon the market has been obtained from 
worn-out animals, the nutrient value of whose flesh is worthless. 

Batchers' Offal, in which are included paunches, sheep's heads, 
and all the odds and ends cut off for the waste-basket, may be 
utilised with economy and advantage to the dog. Whatever of flesh 
meat is used should be cooked. It is especially necessary to well 


boD sheep's heads and the viscera, as these may contain the cysts of 
certain tapeworms, wliich must be taken up by the dog in order to 
complete theii cycle of life. 

Broth from the scraps named should be used to cook the meals in. 
It should be boiled for at least twenty minutes, and poured in a 
boiling state over previously broken biscuits, which should then be 
covered over till cold enough to use. 

ILactOl. — Under this name Messrs. A. F. Sherley & Co. (Borough 
High Street) have brought out a most valuable aid to puppy-rearing. 
As its name suggests, it is a milk preparation, and may be employed 
from weaning time upwards. Cow's milk is notoriously a poor sub- 
stitute for that of the bitch, and as this food very closely approaches 
the latter it should prove of the greatest value to the dog-breeder. 
It may be had in tins with full directions as to its use, 

Malt-XXilk Food.— With this food Spratt's Patent have still 
further added to their fame in catering for the needs of the breeder and 
the dog-fancier. It is a most nutritious and easily assimilated food for 
puppies from the very trying times that they begin to lap until 
weaning and after. It may also be utilised for bottle-feeding in those 
extreme cases where a foster-mother cannot for the moment be procured. 

Household Scraps. — Scraps and bones from the table in many 
households furnish ample food for the dog kept, and, so that the 
allowance is not too rich in meat, nothing can be better. 

Vegetables. — Cooked green vegetables should be given in small 
quantities regularly to adult dogs ; potatoes in large proportion 
prove injurious. 

Bones. — These are almost a necessity to the dog in puppyhood ; 
large ones to gnaw assist ia the irruption of the teeth. For older 
dogs, those that can be broken up assist in digestion ; they also tend 
to keep the teeth clean. 

SXelOX Pood. — To Messrs. W. G. Clarke & Sons, of Limehonse 
E., whose Buffalo Biscuits are exceedingly well known, dog fanciers 
are indebted for the introduction of this appetising food. It is quite 
one of the best change-foods upon the market, and may be given 
alike to puppies and adults with the greatest benefit. For a dainty 
feeder it is one of the most tempting of all foods. Another point 
in its favour is that it is a bone and muscle-forming food, and 
rearers of stock and those who exhibit will alike find it excellent 
for getting it into first-class condition. 


Cow Flesh. — It is not nncommon in country districts to find the 
flesh of oovs which hare died upon faxms utilised for the feeding 
of dogs. Greater discretion should, however, be exercised than is 
usually the case ; for anthrax can be, and tuberculosis possibly may 
be, conveyed to dogs through the medium of such food. 

Water. — This should be pure and fresh, and should always be 
within the dog's reach. The practice, however, of putting a lump 
of roll sulphur (brimstone) in it is useless, for it is insoluble in 

Nnm'ber of Meals. — The frequency of meals has been a dis- 
puted point. From advocating one meaj a day I am a convert to 
two dry biscuits in the morning, and the soft food previously re- 
ferred to, late in the afternoon or evening. 

Puppies. — These require special feeding. It is an error of 
modern dog men to wean puppies too soon — they should run with 
the bitch till six weeks old, being at the same time fed. Soft food 
must alone be given tiU they are some months old. From leaving the 
dam feed seven or eight times a day, reducing the number of meals 
gradually till a year old, when two will be sufficient, except in 
the case of large breeds, which should have three till eighteen months 

GBOOUIITQ. — This is one of the details of kennel management 
which is often overlooked, though it should form a part of the daily 
routine. Not only does it tend to keep at bay the numerous ex- 
ternal parasites of the dog, but it also produces a healthy action of 
the sldn. As to the appliance used this will depend upon the 
variety of dog kept. Smooth dogs need only rubbing with a bit of 
rough towelling or a swab of straw ; rougher coated ones need brush- 
ing, and long coated ones require a comb and brush. Old hair, 
which, in such as coUies and St. Bernards, sticks in dead locks among 
the new, should be carefully removed. How to groom a dog does 
nut seem to be generally understood. It is usual to start with the 
shoulder and fore legs, and gradually extend to the loins and back, 
finishing with the thighs, stifles, etc. By way of imparting a finish- 
ing touch to hounds and the like a wash-leather or one of Dinneford'a 
Hound gloves may be used. Washing is not often needed, and when 
it is Sherley's Shampoo will be found safer and more efEectual than 
many ordinary soaps, being a capital insecticide. With those breeds 
in which the frill or mane is a prominent feature, as in the Pomer- 
anian, it is usual first to groom in the orthodox way, and then to 
finish " against the wool." 



HOUSING.— Nowadays, practically everyone who can afford to 
keep a dog can afford to bouse it properly, as kennels to suit all 
pm-ses have, of recent years, been placed upon the market by enter- 
prising manufactui-ers. The days of the improvised kennel from 
tub or barrel are now happily passed, and dogs, like their masters, 
are housed upon more rational lines than those which obtained 
som_e twenty or tliirty years ago, when any nade structure, so long 
as it was fairly rain-proof, was considered good enough for the 
average dog. 

In the housing of all dogs, there are one or two main points to 
keep steadily in view if an immunity from disease is to be enjoyed 
in the kennel. Primarily there is the aspect, a point which by our 
forefathers was apparently seldom considered. It is, however, all 

^iG. 4. Range of Kennels eoe Tekkiebs. 

important when one comes to think how differently constituted are 
the various breeds of dogs, and that whereas some breeds would 
thrive if kennelled almost anywhere — sporting field dogs, for in- 
stance — providing they were properly fed and exercised ; others, like 
bull-terriers, white EngUsh terriers, gi-eyhounds, etc., which are 
not provided naturally with a thick coat, would suffer considerably. 
This fact, then, must first be recognised — that an aspect which 
would be suitable for one breed would perhaps be fatal to another. 

Taken all round, it wiU be found that a south or south-west 
aspect will be found the most suitable one to select ; but even that 
will not avail if the situation be not diy, for nothing tends so much 
to propagate disease as damp. Sunshine, fresh air (but freedom 
from draughts), good drainage, and proper ventilation, are eq^ually 


important factors, and unless saoh are to be found, no one can long 
keep dogs in health. It was commonly thought at one time by 
those who had the care of dogs, that any odd place in the garden was 
good enough for a kennel ; but modern teaching has done much to 
destroy that erroneous impression, and fanciers of to-day are fully 
alive to the advantages of a good kennel. 

A suitable locality having been decided upon, and the drains 
made, the form of kennel may next receive consideration. Where a 
south or south-west wall exists, and it is desirous of erecting a 
permanent structure, there are no better buildings than the ranges of 
lean-to kennels and yards made by such firms as Spratts, Boulton 
and Paul, Barnard, Bishop, and Barnard, and a few others. Such 
a range is shown at Fig. 4, and may be said to be fairly typical of 
those sold by the firms named. As will be seen, it consists of thi-ee 
houses and yards, with a passage along the back. The yards are 
fitted with iron fencing, and 2ft. of corrugated iron are placed at the 
sides. The range illustrated (Fig. 4) is for terriers, but such can 
be built to suit any variety of dog. The floor of such a range should 
be of some non-absorbent material, and should slope in the direction 
of the drain, which must be properly trapped. Such a range is well 
ventilated from the top, warm, and very easily cleaned ; while one 
of the principal advantages it possesses is that there is no need for 
a chain and a collar, and thus in the case of a show dog there is no 
risk of the coat suffering from the constant rubbing. 

Further improvements on the old style of kennel available that 
may be enumerated are reversible water-troughs, so that they can 
be fiUed from the outside, and disposed at such a height that they 
are not likely to be fouled ; and folding day and night sleeping- 
benches. The top floor of this bench is made to fold up, and thus 
the bedding material is kept not only neatiir but also cleaner and 
drier. The lower bench only is occupied during the day. The 
only objection to these sleeping-benches is that some are made with 
battens, and the dogs are liable to get their feet between. In the 
most modern benches, however, the battens are replaced by boards 
freely perforated. Usually it will be found advantageous to take 
out the straw on each fine day and expose it to the air and sun, 
but taking great care that it is never returned to the bench wet. 
There is, by some kennel-men, an objection raised to the corrugated 
roofs, on the ground that they are cold in winter and hot in summer. 
This may be got over by having an inside wooden lining, or by 
having a thatched roof provided. 

It would be a decided advantage if the owner of such a range oi 
kennels aa that illustrated, possessed an enclosed field or paddock 



containing one or two trees, as not only would this make a good 
exercising ground, but also provide shady quarters for the dogs in the 
hottest summer weather. 

So far these remarks have been chiefly confined to the establish- 

FiG. 6. The Vebo Shaw Kennel in Position. 

ment of kennels for those fairly well-to-do and who can afford to 
spend £30 or so at the outset. It will now be well to note how the 
one-dog man can best be accommodated. As a matter of fact, he has 

Fig. 6. The Veeo Shaw Kennel, Showing Sections. 

been exceedingly well catered for of recent years, the many improve- 
ments in kennel construction all being intended to meet his require- 
ments. Indeed the now very popular portable kennel was chiefly 
designed for the one-dog man. 



Portable kennels have much to recommend them, as, apart from- 
the facility with which they can he taken down and erected on fresh 
giOTind, they are far more easily cleansed and disinfected than the 
old style of kennel. They are, of course, readily packed for 
transmission by rail, and the man, therefore, who has a good dog 
he is taking with him for sporting pm-poses, can also ensure that the 
dog has clean, dry quarters to sleep in. Another excellent f eatxire of 
these kennels is that provision is made for securing the dog a dry 
bed even in the wettest weather. This is done by means of a, fold- 
ing inside partition or screen, which is simplicity itself ; then, again, 
the sliding bench is a most useful addition to those portable kennels, 
as it can be utilised by the dog for lying upon outside when it would 
be dangerous for him to have nothing but the bare ground. Some 
firms even go a step farther and provide an outside covered bench, so 
that from sun and rain he is alike protected. 

Fig. 7. Portable Puppy Eun. 

A very good form of portable kennel, known as the Vero Shaw, is 
illustrated at Figs. 5 and 6, and is made by Barnard, Bishop and 
Barnard, Norwich. It is so constructed as to give the dog a maxi- 
mum of comfort and at the same time to afford every facility for 
cleansing. A sliding bench is fitted under the kennel, and protection 
to the dog from wind and rain is afforded by a movable top and side- 

Amongst other firms who have made a speciality of such portable 
kennels, mention may be made of Boulton and Paul, Norwich ; 
Spratt's Patent, Bermondsey ; Calway, Sharpness, Gloucestershire ; 
and Frazer, Norwich. 

Then there is to be catered for the man who desii-es to keep, say, a 
brood bitch or two, but who has too much respect for either his 


pups or his garden to allow them to wander where they please, pick- 
ing up all sorts of indigestible substances. For such Messrs. Boulton 
and Paul have specially designed a puppy-house and run (Fig. 7). 
In the latter the puppies will be able to obtain just that little 
exeicise which at the beginning of their lives is necessary, as well 
as sun and fresh air without draught. 

Yet another class of dog-owner is he or she who has a dog which 
by reason of its constitution is unfitted for being placed outdoors ; 
or again, one that it is desired to keep indoors for the purpose of 

Fig. 8. BASitEi Kennel. 

protecting the house. For such dogs, usually small, there are nothing 
better than the ornamental baskets, or basket kennels, which are 
frequently seen (Fig. 8). In any of these hay or straw can be used ; 
but neither of these materiaJs would be suitable in the case of a 
Yorkshire Terrier or even a Clydesdale, as they would be sure to get 
intimately mixed with the long, silky coat, to the latter's certain 
loss. Such varieties should be bedded upon a soft cushion. 
It is hardly necessaiy to say that, however dogs are housed, the 



kennel or basket should be periodically cleansed with somefhing 
destmctive to flea-life, for, contrary to the general belief, the flea 
passes the larval existence in the cracks of the floor and the chinks 
of the basket, and not upon the dog. Indeed, the perfect insect 
stage is the only one in which the pest is parasitic on the dog. 



ABORTION. — Strictly speaking, abortion means the expulsioE 
of the foetus before it is sufficiently matured for independent life; 
but in the lower animals the term is generally applied to pre- 
mature parturition as well. Abortion is comparatively rare in dogs, 
but premature whelping, especially just a week or so before the pups 
are due, is by no means uncommon. The causes of abortion and 
premature parturition are various. A low diet, when the system 
requires extra support for the growth of the unborn pups and the 
secretion of milk for them afterwards ; a plethoric state of the body 
from over-feeding and want of exercise ; very severe exercise ; jump- 
ing from a height or over fences ; and, what is too common, blows 
or kicks on the abdomen, are ail likely to cause it. It may also be 
brought on by drinking foul water, eating putrid food or anything 
likely to cause inflammation of the bowels, violent diarrhoea, and 
consequent straining. Young bitches bred from before the system 
is matured, and old, worn-out ones, are most likely to abort. Pre- 
ventive measures consist in general attention to health, alike in 
regard to the food and water given, the sanitary condition of the 
kennel, the permitting of regular, but not violent, exercise, and ir 
selecting only for breeding purposes bitches that are matured and in 
vigorous health. The in-whelp bitch should not be benched upon a 
raised stage, and racing about with other dogs should be avoided. 
When a bitch has had her pups before the full time, she should not be 
again bred from until at least one period of oestrum has passed. 

ABSCZSSS. — An abscess is an accumulation of pus or matter in 
a newly-formed capsule, or wall ; it may be the result of a blow or 
other accident, or be caused by inflammation, local or general. After 



pupping it sometimes happens that one of the teats gets dammed 
up, ajid this gives rise to local inflamnmtion, ending in abscess. 
When an abscess is forming, there is unusual heat of the parts, and 
at first a hard lump, which, as the matter forms, becomes softer, 
and fluctuates under pressure. If the matter should form very 
slowly, it will be advisable to hasten the process by hot fomenta- 
tions, which, if used at all, should be used continuously for a 
considerable lime, afterwards covering the parts to prevent reac- 
tion from the cold air. A poultice is useful if it can be kept to the 
part, and the cleanest and best will be a piece of spongio-pilin — 
which can be had from any chemist — saturated with warm water, 
and applied the waterproof side outwards. The abscess is ripe for 
opening when the underpart is soft and moves readily under pressure 
of the finger. To open it take the lancet between finger and 
thumb, and, plunging it well into the centre, make a clean cut 
downwai-ds, so as to ensure good drainage; press the matter out, 
bathe with warm water, and keep clean. Apply a canvas-faced muzzle 
to prevent the aniinal licking it. In cases where the abscess is deeply 
seated, the veterinary surgeon should alone use the knife. The diet 
throughout should be light and nutritious. In many cases, medicine 
may be dispensed with, except a mild purgative when the matter is 
forming, in which case a dose of the following is recommended : 

Mid Purge. — Take syrup of buckthorn, 3 parts ; syrup of white 
poppies, 1 part; castor oU, 2 parts. Dose — a tablespoonful for a 
dog about 201b. weight. The bottle must be well shaken before tha 
dose is measured. 

As a rule, dogs when convalescent recover quickly, but if after an 
abscess the animal is much reduced and the appetite impaired, one 
of the following pills, given twice a day, will have a beneficial effect : 
Tonic Fills. — Take quinine, 12gr.; sulphate of iron, 18gr. ; extract 
of gentian, 24gr. ; powdered ginger, 18gr. ; make into twelve pills. 
These will be found most useful in debility after distemper find 
other lowering diseases, as well as in all cases of emaciation and 
want of blood, as shown by the paleness of the gums, etc. To save 
repetition, they will in future be referred to as the Tonic Pills. 

An abscess may form internally from a blow or wound, or in 
lung disease. In the latter case the matter would be discharged by 
the nose, and also coughed up; while in the case of the uterus 
the discharge would be through the vagina. Other iatemal organs 
may be the seat of abscesses, but none of these cases can be treated 
by the amateur, and should be entrusted to the veterinary surgeon. 

ACCIDENTS.— These will be found fully dealt with under 
Bites, Bbokbk Boses, Bbuises, Burks xsa Scalds, Chokiso, 

accidents— anthrax. 21 

Concussion of the Brain, Dislocations, Pricks, Sprains, 
Thorns, and Wounds. 

ASEAnBOSIS (Gutta Serena ; Glass-Eye).— This is 
loss of sight, partial or entire, and may arise from one of several 
causes. As a general rule, it is due to a blow in the vicinity of the 
eye, which has the effect of paralysing the optic nerve. It may, 
however, be due to a derangement of the nervous system, such as 
that produced by exhaustion from suckling. Bitches will also 
sometimes exhibit it during gestation ; whilst excess of light is also 
a cause. The eye is unnaturally clear and glistening, the pupil ex- 
panded and fixed, and that the dog is partially or entirely blind is 
seen by his stepping high and with needless care when nothing is in 
his way and running against things which are. If when one feiats 
a blow the eye does not move, total blindness may be assumed. 

In treating for amaurosis, attend to the general health. If the 
cause can be traced, remove it ; while to assist a cure a blister may 
be applied beMnd the ear, and a discharge kept up for a time, 
strengthening food and medicine being given. In cases of blistering, 
the dog's hind legs should be hobbled. It is always better, how- 
ever, when such a delicate organ as the eye is the seat of disease, to 
consult a qualified veterinarian. When the disease is due to a 
deranged nervous system, 3 to 10 drops of tincture of nux vomica, 
in water, twice a day aft«r food, is useful. 

AIT.SMIA (Poverty of Blood) is evidenced by paleness of 
the mucous membranes, weak and slow pulse and heart-beat, lack 
of energy, depression, and lassitude. As the disease progresses, 
the eye sinks, becoming dull, the gait is staggering, the breathing 
becomes laboured and wheezy, and the dog giadually sinks. 

The causes are poor food, exhaustive demands on stud dogs, 
excessive secretion of milk, and allowing bitches to suckle puppies 
too long. Ansemia may also be the result of some other disease 
impoverishing the system, and it is not infrequently a consequence 
of the dog harbouring worms. Give in small quantities and fre- 
quently the most nourishing foods — milk, flesh, broths, etc.— pepsin 
porci to assist digestion, and wine of iron or syrup of phosphates as 
a tonic. At the same time see that the dog is warmly housed and 
that he gets plenty of sunlight and fresh air. 

AITTHBAZ is more particularly a disease of cattle, known in 
Uie vernacular as "black quarter," "black leg," "quarter ill," 
"joint ill," "hasty," "puck," "shoot of blood," etc., from which 
young and particularly fast thriving stock die without giving, in 


most cases, any premonitory symptoms. Dogs partaking of the 
flesh of animals that have died of anthrax become the subject of 
the disease, therefore owners should be extremely careful that the 
carcases offered for feeding purposes are not of animals which have 
succumbed to this disease. Anthrax in dogs affects the mouth, 
throat, and digestive organs, and produces intense fever ; vomiting 
and purging take place, the matter ejected being mixed with blood. 
Treatment is useless, and should not be attempted, for fear of 
inoculation, as the disease is communicable to the human subject. 

AirnS, POLYPUS in THE.-5«( Polypl 

APOPliEXT.— See Fits. 

ASTHMA. — A common and diistressing complaint, which ia 
frequently the result of indulgence in a too plentiful and too rich 
diet, combined with luxurious idleness ; hence we find its victims 
chiefly among lap-dogs and other house pets, which are especially 
liable to it when getting old. The grossness of body which induces 
and fosters asthma also frequently causes at the same time a kind 
of scurfy mange, making the coat look rough and dirty, and giving 
it a harsh, dry feeL Asthma is evidenced by distressing paroxysms 
of coughing, with considerable difficulty of breathing — these symp- 
toms occurring frequently. The first object is to relieve the animal 
from these painful attacks, and this is best accomplished by the use 
of the following medicine : 

Anti-spasmodie Drops. — Take equal parts compound spirit of 
sulphuric ether, known as Hoffman's anodyne, and tincture of 
opium (laudanum), mix, and keep in a weU-stoppered bottle in a 
cool place. Dose for a dog 201b. to 301b. a small teaspoonful given 
La about a tablespoonful of milk, gruel, or other liquid. Or the 
following will be found effective : chloride of ammonium, 2dr. ; ipe- 
cacuanha witie, Idr. ; iodide of potassium, 12gr. ; bicarbonate of 
pof^assium, Idr. ; syrup of squills, Idr. Water to 6oz. Dose, a 
dessert-spoonful to a tablespoonful three times a day. 10 to 20 
drops of chlorodyne will also give relief. 

Though, as hinted, the above will give relief, they will not cure, 
and to remove one at least of the predisposing causes the dog must 
have frequent doses of a brisk aperient ; either a dose every morning 
of the buckthorn and castor oil mixture (Mild Purge) ; or the third 
of an ordinary black draught ; or, what will be still better in many 
cases, a compound podophyllin pill every night. In addition to this 
treatment, he should be Induced or compelled to take such daily 
exer(nse as will make him readily eat coarser food. His meals 


should be given rather often, and in snmU quantities. In some cases 
it may be requisite to apply a quick blister to the front and sides of 
the chest, and strong liquid ammonia wiU be found an efficient and 
cheap one. 

Veterinarians distinguish between congestive and spasmodic 
asthma ; but for the purposes of the amateur it is better to deal 
with it as one disease, the distinction being too fine a one for most 
non-prof essionaJs to discriminate. The main and readUy distinguish- 
able difference is the more constant exhibition of symptoms in the 
former, the breathing always being laboured, and producing a 
wheezing sound, the spasmodic cough violently affecting the dog at 

Much relief may be afforded asthmatical dogs by confining 
them in a close box kennel and filling it with the smoke of Stramo- 
nium (Thorn Apple). This may be done twice a day with advantage, 
and care should always be taken with such patients not to subject 
them to any sudden change of temperature, whether from heat to 
cold, or the reverse. If the disease has become confirmed or chronic, 
the chance of complete cure is very remote ; but the regular use of 
the following piUs will have considerable effect in counteracting the 
liability to severe paroxysms : 

C(rugh Pills. — Take powdered ipecacuanha. 6gr. ; powdered opium, 
6gr. ; compound squill pill, 24gr. ; powdered gum ammoniacum, 
S34gr. ; powdered liquorice, 24gr. ; powder for compound rhubarb 
piU, 12gr. Mix, and make into twenty-four pills. Dose for a 201b. 
to 301b. dog, one pill night and morning. As these pills have been 
found to have a wonderful effect in giving relief in all affections of 
the respiratoi-y organs, and will be wanted again, they will be referred 
to as the Covgh PilU. 

BALANITIS is applied to an inflammatory condition of the 
mucous membrane of the prepuce, giving rise to discharge. See 
Penis, Discharge fkom. 

BALDNXiSS. — In smooth-coated toy dogs this condition is 
often seen — ^in toy black-and-tan terriers to wit, when it is often 
due to in-and-in breeding. It may, however, be the result of deficient 
nutritive functions and debility. Tonics should be given, and the 
bare places dressed with the following ointment : Tincture of 
cantbaridea, 2dr. ; vaseline, 3oz. 

BIIiIAST CALCULI.— <Se« Calculi. 


BITES. — When a dog has heen bitten by another, wash the 
wound freely with tepid water, and press out any blood that will 
freely come, so that the extent of the injury may be seen. Most bites 
leave punctured wounds, and a good application is Friar's Balsam. 
Or the wound may be dressed with a lotion composed of 1 part 
carbolic acid and 20 parts water, adding a little glycerine to the 
acid before mixing with the water. A saturated solution of boracic 
acid is also useful. A few drops poured into the part is enough, 
unless there is a tear, in which case it may be necessary to bandage 
or to draw together with a few stitches of silk thread. If the 
bite has been inflicted by a strange dog, the circumstances should be 
inquired into. See Rabies. 

BLADDEZt, INn^AntSEEATIOir OF.— This is evidenced 
by great pain on the application of pressure over the region of the 
bladder ; the urine is passed in small quantities at frequent intervals, 
and evidently with considerable pain. Inflammation of the bladder 
is frequently the result of a blow ; it may be produced by prolonged 
exposure to cold and wet, and is not infrequently the result of 
the unwarrantable administration of cantharides, turpentine, and 
other drugs, by the ignorant ; it is also sometimes due to stric- 
ture of the urethra (the urinary passage), or calculi (stone). The 
treatment consists la first giving a brisk purgative ; nothing in this 
case is better than half Qf an ordinary black draught ; but if this 
does not act, it will be well to assist it with clysters of lukewarm 
soap and water or thin gruel, or even a hot bath. The acute 
symptoms having passed, give 3gr. to 5gr. of benzoic acid in pill 
form three times a day. If the urine is not freely passed, the 
catheter should be used in the manner detailed below. When 
the bowels have been opened, give a dose every six hours of the 
following : 

Fever Mixture. — Take powdered nitre, Idr. ; sweet spirit of nitre, 
ioz. ; Mindererus' spirit, IJoz. ; wine of antimony, Idr. ; tincture of 
digitalis, idr. ; water 4oz. Mix. Dose for a dog 201b. to 301b. 
weight, one tablespoonful every four hours in a little grueL 

The patient will experience relief if the parts are bathed continu- 
ously with a warm infusion of poppy-heads, or warm water alone, 
care being taken that he is not afterwards exposed to cold. The 
dog's diet should be light and nourishing. 

B^ADBEK, FASAIiTSIS OF.— This affection is shown 
by the constant efforts of the dog to urinate and inability to do so, 
the water coming away in dribbles. It may arise from stone in the 
bladder. A common cause is over-distension of the bladder caused 


by keeping dogs where they will not nrinate. Some dogs will not 
do so when shut up in a room, or when on the chain; hence the 
necessity, too often neglected, of taking dogs off the benches at 
exhihitions at regular intervals. This compulsory retention of nrine 
produces spasm of the neck of the bladder, and paralysis — loss of 
the necessary muscular power — follows. It may also be the result of 
injury to the spine, or of debilitating disease. The effect of con- 
tinued hot fomentations should be tried, and if these fail, the urine 
should be drawn off by means of a catheter. Passing a catheter is a 
very simple matter. The dog should be placed upon his back, and 
the prepuce pressed back, so as to bring the penis into view ; the 
catheter should then be dressed with a little olive oil or vaseline and 
passed gently into the opening at the point of the penis. This will 
introduce it into the bladder, when the piece of wire with which the 
instrument is provided should be withdrawn. Should the urine not 
flow freely, the dog can be stood upon its legs, keeping the catheter 
in position. If a catheter is not at hand, pressure with both hands 
through the abdominal walls in the region of the bladder, will 
empty it of its contents. If paralysis of the hind legs is present, an 
assistant should raise the body from the ground, by means of the 
tail, whilst the operator is pressing the sides. 

During convalescence give barley-water to drink, and soft nourish- 
ing food — porridge and milk, broth and bread, etc. 

BIJAIIT is a name given to a vesicular swelling of the tongue 
along the sides and underneath. It comes on suddenly, is most 
frequent in spring and summer, and appears to be epidemic, many 
cases occurring in the same neighbourhood at the same time ; it has 
not been shown to be contagious. Horses and cattle are even more 
subject to it than dogs, and, although it is not a fatal disease, it is a 
very troublesome one. 

The symptoms appear without warning and apparently without 
cause. The first thing generally observed is a considerable increase 
in the flow of saliva, which dribbles from the mouth. The breath is 
foetid, and on examination the tongue wiU be found considerably 
swollen, while, if the disease has lasted any time, there will be 
observed large livid vesicles, which rupture, leaving ulcers ; these 
ultimately assume a gangrenous form, and discharge foetid matter 
tinged with blood. 

If observed in its early stage, give a dose of Mild Aperient or 
black draught every morning for four or five days. If the vesicles 
are large, make an incision with a lancet, and sponge the tongue with 
1 part of saturated solution of chlorinated soda to 10 parts of 
tepid water, or ^vith a dessert-spoonful of Condy's fluid in a pint of 


water, or with a saturated solution of boracic acid. If the ulcers 
assume a very unhealthy form, they may be touched with a point of 
caustic, but this requires the utmost care, or it will spread over the 
surrounding surface, causing great and unnecessary pain. After the 
aperient medicine, tonics should be given. For a dog 301b. to 501b. 
weight give one of the following pills twice a day : Pure sulphate of 
iron, Idr. ; extract of camomile, IJdr. Mix, and divide into twenty- 
four pills. Whilst blain exists, the food should be entirely soft- 
oatmeal porridge, broth thickened with stale bread, etc 

BLIlTSlTZiSS may be partial or complete, temporary or per- 
manent. Partial loss of sight is one of the common sequels to dis- 
temper. See Cataract, Ophthalmia, Amaurosis, and Dis- 

BLOOD, FOVEBTT OF.— See Asmhia. 

BLOODT VBiITHE.—See Hematuria. 

BLOTCH, OB StTBFBIT.— When dogs are affected with 
blotch, inflamed patches are observed on various parts of the body ; 
these discharge a thia mattery fluid, which eventually forms a scab, 
and mats the hair together. In a few days the hair falls off, leaving 
bare patches moist from the exuded fluid, and an iatolerable itching 
is present, causing continual scratching or rubbing. II the disease 
be neglected, these scabs rapidly extend and coalesce till the dog 
becomes almost bare of hair, and presents a loathsome and disgust- 
ing appearance. There is constant exudation of matter forming 
fresh scabs, the skin becomes thickened and wrinkled, the dog rubs 
or scratches himself tiU he bleeds, he gets no rest, his appetite fails, 
and he often sinks under the disease. 

Blotch is often aggravated by want of thorough cleanliness, the 
dirt mixing with the exuded watery matter, and causing increased 
irritation of the skin. It is of most frequent occurrence and severest 
In its attacks in overcrowded kennels, where the sanitary arrange- 
ments are bad, where injudicious or insufficient feeding prevails, and 
where there is a want of proper cleanliness. 

Damp and cold kennels I have found fruitful of blotch, and indeed 
anything that interferes with the general health. Weakening the 
digestive organs appears to produce it, and so does gorging a dog, as 
is often done in forcing them into condition for show. 

The treatment of this form of skin disease wiU be somewhat 
dependent on the state of the animal. If in good condition the dog 
ghonld receive a brisk purgative, and the Compound PodophyUin PilU 


will be found most suitable. The aim should be, however, to pro- 
duce a healthier state of the blood, to which end give the following : 
3gr. to 5gr. of sulphate of iron, with 3 to 10 drops of lic[uor 
arsenicalis. It wiU be necessary to keep the bowels freely opened 
during the existence of the disease. If the dog is much emaciated, 
he must have the Mild Purge, and receive good nourishing diet In 
the form of broth, etc. As an outward application, the following 
lotion will be found extremely useful in allaying the irritation and 
assisting in recovery : 

Lotion for Blotch. — Take carbolic acid and glycerine (British 
PharmaoopoBia), loz. ; laudanum, 2oz. ; water, IJ pints ; carbonate 
of potash, 2dr. It should be applied over the whole surface of the 
skin affected twice a day, and the dog be carefully washed every few 
days with soap and warm water, containing a teaspoonful of 
carbonate of soda to every quart of water, and afterwards very 
carefully dried ; this will much facilitate a cure. Another useful 
formula ia boracic acid, loz. ; laudanum, loz. ; whale oil, 14oz. ; but 
it is a dirty and disagreeable thing to use. White naphthol ointment 
is also good, but, being poisonous, a canvas-faced muzzle must be 
placed upon the dog. 

Of course the kennel must be examined, any defective sanitary 
ajrangements altered, and thorough cleanliness insisted on. The 
dog's bedding should be changed at least every other day, and the 
proper use of disinfectants in and about the kennel is of great service. 

I have often found glycerine alone cure blotch when very freely 
rubbed into the skin twice a day, and nothing can be simpler, safer, 
or cleaner. All cases, however, will not yield to it, and it should be 
tried in combination with 2 or 3 per cent, of pure carbolic acid. 
This may be used alone, or, where a large surface of skin is affected, 
diluted with an equal bulk of water. Dressings of oUve oil or 
vaseline are useful when the skin is hot and wrinkled. See also 

SOILS are not very common on the dog ; when they do appear, 
a poultice of some kind should, if practicable, be kept constantly 
applied, in order to bring the boU quickly to a head. It should then 
be opened with a lancet, the matter well squeezed out, the part well 
washed with tepid water, and then dressed twice daily with the 
following ointment, which for convenience will be referred to as 
Carbolic Ointment : Turner's Cerate {Ceratum calamince), loz. ; pre- 
cipitated chalk, glycerine, and carbolic acid, of each 2dr. ; mix. 
In the case of boils or any other eruption the state of the dog's 
health must be considered. A cooling aperient drench, such as the 
{oUowing, given every other day for a week or so, wUl usually prov^ 


beneficial : Epsom salts, Idr. ; bicarbonate of potash, lOgr. ; sweet 
spirit of nitre, 10 drops ; water, foz. ; mix. 


BONES, BROKEN.— It can be ascertained if a bone of the 
leg is broken by taking bold of the limb above the supposed fracture 
and moving the lower portion against it, when a grating or crackling 
of the broken ends against each other will be felt or heard. The treat- 
ment consists in adjusting the fractured parts to their natural form, 
and applying splints to keep the parts set Splints may be made of 
strips of gutta percha, softened in warm water, and moulded to fit 
the limb ; or pieces of thin wood may be cut the required size, and 
well padded with wadding. A good and light bandage for fractures 
is made by soaking a bandage, made of muslin, in gum tragacahth. 
The splints can be kept in place by binding evenly with light calico 
bandages, which previous to application have been smeared with 
Venice turpentine and Burgundy pitch, in equal parts, whilst hot. 
If much swelling occur, it wUl be necessary to slacken the bandages, 
and in most cases it will be requisite to muzzle the dog to prevent him 
tearing off the splints. Perfect rest will be required, and the general 
health should be attended to. The time it will take for the bones to 
unite is uncertain. An excellent and very convenient description of 
splints for fractures is made by Mr. Linton, chemist, Princes Street, 
Edinburgh. In use it has to be first softened in warm water, when 
it can be pressed around the fractured part, and made to take its 
exact form; it soon hardens, and is kept on until the bones are 
again joined and consolidation of the tissues is complete. The 
amateur should only attempt to deal with simple fractures. Com- 
minuted fractures, where the bone is broken into several pieces ; 
and compound fractures, wherein the soft parts are torn and the 
ends of the broken bones exposed, should be left to the veterinary 

BOWELS, INFLAMMATION OF (Enteritis; Perito- 
nitis). — The severity and very dangerous character of this disease 
in the dog are such that perhaps the very best advice that can be given 
to the amateur who finds his valued dog attacked by it, is to send 
for a qualified veterinary surgeon without delay. The owner may, 
however, be possessed of sufficient self-confidence as to wish to try 
his own skill in treating the disease ; or the dog may not be con- 
sidered of sufficient value to incur the expense of employing a 
professional man, although there may be every desire to save the 
animal's life. If I can help in any snch commendable endeavour 

nrrLAMMATioH of thb bowels. !» 

ifithoTit encouraging useless and ignorant experimenting at the cost 
of torture to the dog, I shall feel that I have heen of some little 

Whatever course is determined on, whether home treatment or 
the calling in of professional aid, the decision should not he taken till 
the symptoms have heen carefully and minutely observed, and the 
greatest attention must he paid to them, else there is every fear of 
the amateur confounding the disease wth and treating it aa colic, 
which, although strongly resembling inflammation in some of its 
symptoms, differs widely in others, and requires totally different 
treatment. Colic, if neglected or wrongly treated, may, and fre- 
quently does, end in inflammation of the bowels; but it is in 
itself a distinct ailment; and the same remark equally applies to 
constipation, or obstruction of the bowels. 

As inflammation of the bowels, or enteritis, is one of the most 
fatal diseases to which the dog is liable— frequently carrying him off 
very quickly — no half measures will do for it ; but, having ascer- 
tained clearly from the prevailing symptoms that the disease is 
actually present, remedial measures must be adopted with prompti- 
tude and energy. The main ca^uses of the disease are irregular or 
improper diet ; irritation caused by the dog having swallowed some 
hard indigestible substance ; and exposure to cold and wet. Some- 
times, however, it is the result of ill-usage, such as a kick. Inflam- 
mation of the bowels may be distinguished from colic in being more 
giadual iu its approach, and it is always ushered in by general 
feverishness ; the nose is hot and dry, the eyes are red, and the 
whole countenance is expressive of great anxiety ; shivering fits 
occur, the beUy is hard and distended, the surface hot to the touch, 
and the urine is generally scanty and highly coloured. As in colic, 
when standing, the back is arched, the feet are drawn in towards 
each other, and the tail is tightly tucked between the legs ; or the 
dog may steal into a quiet corner, stretch his legs out before and 
behind, and crouch with his beUy on the ground, probably finding 
temporary relief by bringing it iu contact with the cold floor or 
ground ; at the same time the dog may be observed to frequently 
turn an anxious face towards his flanks. Another safe and pretty 
certain way of distinguishing between enteritis and simply ob- 
struction or colic, is by pressing the hand along the beUy. In the 
latter diseases, especially in colic, the rubbing gives reUaE, whereas 
in inflammation it evidently causes acute pain. 

I may here mention the fact that enteritis is very commonly a 
complication of that "scourge of the kennel," distemper, and this 
fact alone sufficiently shows the foUy of trusting to any single 
medicine — pill, powder, or potion— or any so-called specific whatever 


for the cura of that disease. The treatment proper in the disease 
under consideration consists in getting the bo-wels relieved as speedily 
as possible by the mildest means that can be used, constipation being 
generally present. For this purpose the use of clysters every fifteen 
minutes, as recommended in ObstkUOTION op the Bowels, should 
be resorted to, and the injections must be used gently and 
with as little annoyance to the patient as possible. When the 
clysters begin to take effect, the evacuation of the bowels should 
be assisted by a dose of castor oil. Many of the best writers on 
dogs recommend giving calomel and opium combined, and it may 
appeal presumptuous in me to offer a contrary opinion; but 
Experience is the best teacher. Instead of calomel, I have in 
several cases used the following with excellent effect : true James's 
powder, 2gr. ; powdered opium, Jgr. ; in one powder. Give to a 
201b. dog one of these powders every two hours till three have been 

To allay the pain, give 5gr. to lOgr. of chloral, with 5 to 30 drops 
of tincture of opium ; also apply hot flannels to the abdomen. 

If the dog should get over the attack, with signs of returning 
health great weakness will be evident, and this must be met by 
good nursing and a generous, but easily assimilated, diet. Beef- 
tea, thickened with bread, cornflour, or arrowroot, will answer welL 
The diet must be so varied as to keep the bowels open without the 
use of medicine. When well on the road to health, progress will 
be accelerated by giving the Tonic Pills twice a day ; or the follow- 
ing may be substituted : 

Concentrated Tonic Mxtvre. — Take of concentrated decoction of 
yeUow cinchona bark and compound tincture of cinchona bark loz. 
each ; mix. Dose for a 201b. dog, half a teaspoonful twice a day in 

BOWELS, OBSTBUCTION OF (Constipation, or 

Costiveness). — Dogs are peculiarly liable to oostiveness, and, 
as Youatt states, "it is a disease when it becomes habitual " j 
but a very little care and attention on the part of the owner 
will prevent it. In the tendency to oostiveness of course individual 
animals differ, and should be treated accordingly. Although 
bones are excellent and almost necessary to a dog's health, 
an excess of them is to be avoided. The same may be said 
of an excess of any kind of dry food, or of keeping the dog 
constantly to one diet ; indeed, want of exercise and the absence 
of the necessary variety in the food are the principal causes of 
Whether looked upon aa a disease in itself, or as a symptom and 


attendant on other diseases, constipation is always troablesome and 
often becomes dangerous. The fseces aocumulate and get pressed 
into hardened lumps, the belly is distended and hard, and colic 
pains occur, driving the dog almost frantic and causing him to run 
about blindly, stumbling over different obstacles that happen to 
be in bis way, and to give utterance every now and then to sharp 
howls of pain. And here I would warn the owner against resorting 
to the common practice in constipation of giving strong purgatives, 
such as Epsom salts, jalap, calomel, aloes, etc., the tendency of 
which is to render the evil worse by forcing the faeces into a 
still smaller compass, whereby they become more impacted and 
hardened than before. When the dog is in great pain, the proper 
course is to administer a dose of the Anii-spasmodia Drops. Clysters 
of tliin oatmeal gruel, or soap and water lukewarm, and containing 
about loz. of castor oil in each J pint, must be used continuously 
till the desired object has been attained. This end will be greatly 
facilitated by first introducing the finger, oOed, or a small bone 
spoon, into the rectum, and removing as many of the hard faeces as 
can be reached. It is necessary that everything should be done 
with the greatest gentleness ; for rough handling is likely to alarm 
the patient and cause him to do himself irreparable injuiy. When 
the lower bowels have been emptied, follow up the treatment by 
giving the dog a strong dose of castor oil and some warm broth or 
grueL The use of purgatives must not be resorted to to prevent 
a recurrence of the disease. The system of management must be 
altered, the dog must have daily exercise, the food must be varied, 
and embrace a portion of boiled, chopped up green vegetables at 
least every second or third day. For a week or so after the attack 
rather sloppy food should be given, such as well boiled porridge and 
milk or broth. 

Foreign Bodies in the Intestines. — This is another cause 
of obstruction in the bowels to which dogs are peculiarly liable. 
Pieces of bone are swallowed of such size and substance that 
they pass through the digestive organs very slightly diminished, 
and getting into the smaller intestines, cannot pass farther, so 
that faeces aocimiulate and harden until, if not relieved, inflam- 
mation is set up. Sometimes stones are swallowed and cause 
obstruction, and this will at once demonstrate the danger of 
throwing stones for dogs to retrieve, for, in their eagerness, they 
are apt to swallow them, especially if small Wool or rabbit 
fur swallowed is likely to ball together with other matter and 
block the passage, and a case once came under my observation 
pf % bull bitch suffering from obstruction of the intes^tines fron 


a ball of straw which she had swallowed bit by bit, from having 
her- meat, boiled paunch, thrown down to her in pieces among 
her bedding. 

Intussusception is the telescoping of one portion of the intes- 
tines that has been contracted by spasm within another part re- 
taining its natural diameter, and is another not uncommon cause of 
obstruction which is apt to take place during spasmodic colic. In- 
tussusception cannot be determined by symptoms, but is discovered 
on post-mortem examination. The obstruction consequaHt upon it 
sets up inflammation, ending in death. Dogs should not be allowed 
to remain costive more than two days without the means for their 
relief already described being resorted to. It is always safe and 
generally advisable in such cases to give a full dose of olive, 
linseed, or castor oil, or a mixture of them. 

Worms are another cause of obstruction in the intestines, es- 
pecially in pups. Kound Worms get coiled into balls, set up local 
irritation, and interfere with the natural action of the bowels. This 
sort of obstruction will, however, be more fully treated under 

BRAIN, CONCtrSSION OF THE.— 5ee Concussion of 
THE Brain. 


The meninges, as the inembrauea enveloping the brain are called, 

are liable to inflammation. In this affection there is great drowsi- 
ness, with sudden spasmodic movements of the muscles of the head 
and chest during sleep. The disease is often preceded by fits. In 
this, as in other affections of the brain, there is a disposition to wait 
in circles, and always to the one side, and the sight is so affected 
that the poor dog runs against obstacles. No treatment by the 
amateur is of avail. 

BBAIN, WATER ON THE (Hydrocephalus).— Pro- 
fessor WoodrofFe HUl, F.K.C.V.S., in his exhaustive work on dog 
diseases, makes the following pertinent remarks : " Hydrocephalus, 
or water on the brain, is by no means an infrequent canine affection. 
It is invariably congenital, and is more particularly seen in high-bred 
dogs and especially where the in-and-in system of breeding has been 
adopted. Several instances have come under my own observation 
attributable, in my opinion, to the latter cause. In one or two cases 
absolute idiocy existed, the animals performing absurd motions, and 


alike regardless of petting or scolding. They were diminutive black- 
and-tan toys, and, if I may be allowed the expression 'bred to 
death,' destitute of hair on the ears and skull, the latter unsightly 
and large, the eyes paiufully prominent and expressionless, the body 
deficient in symmetry, and the limbs distorted. And some of the 
defects named were considered by the creatures' owners as indi- 
cations of the purity of the strain ; and animals of this type are 
kept — regardless of entreaties to destroy such insults to Nature — 
for purposes of breeding. Fortunately, however. Nature rarely 
sanctions issue from such parents. " 

In addition to the symptoms above named, paralysis is veiy fre- 
quently present, usually in the hind limbs, which, in locomotion, 
are dragged. There is also often a great disposition to sleep, but it 
is generally disturbed by fitful starts and suppressed moans, and the 
eyelids during that period are only partially closed. 

I have no remarks to offer on the treatment of canine hydro- 
cephalus, beyond observing that the measures adopted in human 
practice — compression, puncturing, and the various medicinal 
agents — may be tried, and possibly with success, in those cases 
where exceptional reasons for saving the animal's life and removing 
the unnatural effects of the disease exist. 

BKEESZNG, TO PRBVEWT.— To prevent a bitch from 
breeding after she has gone astray, wash out the womb with a strong 
solution of alum and water, using the ordinary syringe with the 
female point adjusted. The sooner this is done after the act of coition, 
the better. It will often prove successful, especially if the bitch is in 
the early stages of oestrum. A fairly strong solution of Condy's 
Fluid, with 5gr. of sulphate of zinc to each ounce, has also been 
successfully employed. 

BKONCEZTXS may be described as inflammation of the 
bronchial tubes, or windpipes, which convey air to the lungs. W hen 
the inflammation is confined to the upper portion of the windpipe, or 
larynx, it is termed Laeynqitis, which see. 

Exposure to damp and cold, being kennelled v/here foul and irri- 
tating emanations are breathed, and neglect of common colds, are 
the chief causes. 

When the larger air-pipes alone aae affected, the dog at first 
suffers from a short, dry, intermittent cough, which, in a few days 
becomes more freq^uent, and mucous matter is discharged from the 
nose and also coughed out ; but when the smaller bronchia are 
attacked, there is pretty constant wheezing; the cough is more 
severe ; frothy matter, often tinged with blood, is expectorated ; ths 



breath is hot ; the mouth and nose are di-y and hot ; the eyes are red 
and inflamed ; the tongue is parched ; the pulse is weak and con- 
siderably increased ; the discharge from the nose gradually becomes 
thick and copious, and there is often violent sneezing. 

The patient should be placed in a tolerably warm room where 
there is a fire, and if a kettle with a long spout be kept boiling so 
that the steam is distributed through the apartment, it will prove 
very beneficial to the dog. The fireplace will also ensure ventila- 
tion, which is always important. In the first instance give to a 
201b. dog 3gr. of true James's powder, and foz. of castor oil as a 
mild laxative. For food, give broth or porridge. 

Fig. 9. CoAi FOR SrcK Dog. 

Where there is an accumulation of phlegm, and the animal 
endeavours to dislodge it, give a dessertspoonful to a tablespoonful 
of ipecacuanha wine, to act as an emetic. This will gi'eatly relieve 
the patient. If the cough is troublesome, give from a dessert- 
spoonful to a tablespoonful of the following mixture twice a day :— 
Liquor morphise mur., 2dr. ; spirit of ether sulp. co., 2dr. ; tincture 
of camphor co. , 3dr. j ipecacuanha wine, Idr. ; water to 3oz. . Or 3gr. 
to 5gr. of benzoic acid will relieve the cough. Apply hot linseed 
poultices to the chest and sides, and always place a coat upon the 
dog (Fig. 9). 


The following medicine, in the form of a thin electuary, shonld 
then be admuustered to the patient every three hours : 

Electuary for Bronchitis and Sore Throat.— Taike chlorate of 
potash, 3dr. ; wine of ipecacuanha, 3dr. ; tincture of opium, 2dr. ; 
powdered liquorice root, Joz. ; powdered gum acacia, |oz. ; honey, 
loz. ; and vinegar of squills, Joz. Mix, and give to a dog 201b. 
weight a teaspoonful every three or four hours. See that the 
ingredients are weU mixed, as they wUl have a tendency to separate, 
and in giving the medicine place it well back on the tongue. 

It is sometimes advisable to blister the throat and front of the 
chest, and in most cases a good rubbing with a strong stimulative 
liniment will be of service. Vinegar and mustard may be used, or 
the following ; Spirits of turpentine, IJoz. ; oil of origanum, loz. ; 
tincture of cantharides, Joz. ; spirit of hartshorn, loz. ; rape oU, 
2oz. ; mixed. 

Bronchitis often assumes a chronic form, especially in old dogs, 
when there is a constant husky cough, bringing on retching and 
discharge of phlegm. In such cases the breathing is short and 
thick and the animal uicapable of much exertion. Nothing can 
be done towards a cure, but alleviation may be obtained by ad- 
ministering when the cough is unusually bad a little oxymel of 
squills and thick mucilage of acacia in equal parts. A dessert- 
spoonful to a tablespoonful may be given several times a day. 

BBONCHOCELE.— An enlargement of the thyroid glands, 
that is, the principal cartilage of the larynx. See Goitee. 

BRUISES. — When there is much swelling, bathe for an hour 
with warm water, and having weU dried the parts, rub in the 
following : 

Liniment for Sprains, Bruises, etc. — Take equal parts of spirit of 
turpentine, liquid ammonia (not the strongest, but the spirit of 
hartshorn of the shops), laudanum, and rape oil; mix to form 
a liniment. 

If the skin be broken, touch the wounds with tincture of benzoin 
(Friar's balsam), and rub the liniment aU round, but not into the 
broken skin. 

BUXMTS AITD SCALDS. — Dogs allowed to run at large 
without their owner's supervision encounter many dangers, and are 
apt to get into mischief — I might say lato hot water — and although 
owners may reasonably expect dogs to be punished when on trespass, 
that is no justification for the cruel and malicious to scald or bum 
the poor beast, who is not to blame when, following his instinct, he 



seeks the slaughter-house. Of course, a bum or scald may be the 
result of pure accident, and of tenest happens to that class technically 
termed " cinder- worriers." The best application to either bum or 
scald is the preparation known as Carron oil, which is made by 
mixing equal parts of linseed oil and lime water. It should be 
applied freely, and as soon after the accident as possible. As a 
useful remedy it should be kept in every house, but especially in 
every country house. In such cases the dog should he kept quiet, 
receive plain food, and be given a mild aperient. A bum or scald, if 
severe, often gives a violent shock to the system, and symptoms of 
Ulness arising from it must be observed and treated according to 
circumstances. Carron oil is best applied direct to the wound alone, 
and then immediately thickly covered with cotton-wool to exclude 
the air from the bladders formed. The dressing should be repeated 
when necessary, care being taken that no hairs or other irritating 
substances are left on the sore places. 

CALCUILX. — The dog is more frequently the subject ot Calculi 
(Stone) than is generally supposed. Their locality varies ; they 
may exist in the biliary ducts, the bladder, the kidneys, or in 
the urethra (the passage of the penis). 

In Biliary calculi, those stones situated in the biliary ducts, pro- 
viding they are sufficiently small to pass the duct are not of great 
moment — in fact, upon post-mortem one often discovers their exist- 
ence, while during life no inconvenience or pain was noticed^but 
should these stones be too large to pass the ducts, they are very 
painful and a most fmitful cause of jaundice. The bile, which in 
health passes through these ducta, becomes completely impeded in 
its progress, and is re-absorbed by the blood-vessels entering the 
general system, and jaundice is established. The symptoms of 
biliary calculi when not completely blocking the ducts, are excessive 
sickness and constipation, with pain in the abdomen. The treat- 
ment should consist in allaying the pain, when the stone will 
frequently pass in a natural way. To accomplish this object give 
S to 30 drops of tincture of opium, every four hours, in a little water, 
and a soap and water enema night and morning to relieve the bowels, 
opium having a tendency to constipate. 

Cystic calculi is the name given to stones found in the bladder ; 
it is generally supposed that their existence is extremely rare, but 
such is certainly not the case. A single large stone is not frequently 
seen, but a nmnber of small ones, especially in old dogs, is not at all 

CALCULI— CALLoairrss. S7 

nncommon. In the former cases nothing short of an operation can 
possibly effect a cure ; but when one takes into consideration the 
necessity of keeping a patient in one position after the operation, it 
will be patent to most, that in canine practice, the removal of the 
stone is seldom, if ever, attended with success. I have seen a few 
attempts at the operation, but all, without exception, have been 
dira failures. 

Small caJculi will frequently pass from the bladder into the 
nrinary passage (urethra), and if small enough, out of the body 
through the penis ; but often these stones will become fixed in the 
urethra and the animal is unable to pass its water. The bladder 
becomes distended, and if not relieved, rupture of the organ results. 
When one finds a dog cannot pass its water, a catheter should be 
procured, a little olive oil or vaseline rubbed upon it, and the 
instrument inserted at the tip of the penis. Of course the animal 
must be placed upon its back. Insert the catheter very gently, and 
gradually pass it into the bladder. If there is a small calculus in 
the urethra the passage of the catheter will be obstructed, and when 
this is so, no extreme force must be used, or a very extensive injury 
may result. A little gentle and prolonged pressure may return the 
atone into the bladder, and so allow the urine to pass. If the stone 
cannot be returned in this attempt, inject into the passage of the 
penis a little olive or salad oU, and repeat the operation with the 

Calculi sometimes exist in the kidneys and may pass into the 
bladder, thence through the urinary passage, and so out of the 
body ; but at other times they become too large to leave the organ 
and cause intense pain and subsequent death. The symptoms are 
first, stiffness across the loins accompanied by pain when an 
attempt is made to move ; the urine is passed in small quantities, 
and is frequently, indeed often, tinged with blood. In these cases it 
is a matter of relieving the pain, with the hope that the stone is 
small enough to gain an exit Ijy the penis. To relieve the pain give 
5 to 30 drops of tincture of opium about every four hours, and apply 
hot flannels to the loins. A dose of oil to relieve the bowels is bene- 
ficial, as any straining in passing the faeces would increase the pain. 
It is well to leave these cases to the veterinary surgeon. 

CALLOSITIES. — Places bare of hair from nibbing or chafing, 
lying on bare boards, etc., are often seen on the haunches of large, 
smooth-coated dogs ; while the skin is thickened (indurated), and 
almost homy. Continued applications of glycerine, vaseline, or 
boracic acid ointment night and morning will soften and tend to 
remove these lumps, which, although an eyesore, do no hana 


CAITCER. — Tills is a disease which can only be with certainty 
distinguished and safely treated by the professional man. Fortu- 
nately, however, It is not of very frequent occurrence In the dog, 
and many authorities doubt the existence of true cancer in the dog. 

CAI7ZNE XADNHaS.-See Eabies. 

CANKERED MOUTH.— -See Mouth, Cankee op 

CAITEEB OF THE EAK.— <S'ee Eab, Cakkeb of. 

CATARACT. — Cataract consists of the presence in the interior 
of the eyeball of a whitish opaque spot, which gradually enlarges 
and very often ends in blindness. This opaque spot is situate on 
the crystalline lens. It frequently follows ophthalmia, but it may 
be the result of inflammation or of a wound or blow. It is com- 
monest ia aged dogs, and is then an evidence of failing health, 
and the probable breaking up of the system. 
Nothing short of an operation is of any avaU. 

Fig. 10 is the crystalline lens and is the 

seat of cataract. It is made up of concentric 

laminse, and when hardened, by immersion in 

alcohol, it can be peeled in the same way as 

the layers of an onion can be removed. It is 

composed of a capsule and lens : if the cataract 

is situated upon the lens, it is known as a 

Fig. 10. Crystalline lenticular cataract, but if confined to the cap- 

Lens, showing the , ., . , , i 4. -D iU 

Layers 1, 2, 2, 2, sule it is known as capsular cataract. Uotn 

structures may however be involved, when it 
is known as capsule lenticular. The hardest portion of the lens 
is that most centrally placed. 

live in freedom, although much exposed to changes of temperature 
and weather, are not so liable to attacks of catarrh as the more 
delicately reared, in whom a sudden change from the close atmo- 
sphere of the room to the open air, or exposure to a drenching shower, 
frequently produces cold. The first symptoms are shivering and 
evident languor, succeeded by a hot, dry nose, with a thin discharge 
at first, but which gradually thickens. If the disease proceed, a hot 
skin, dulness about the eyes, with other evidences of fever, follow, 
according to the severity of the case. There is more or less dis- 
charge from the nose, sometimes accompanied with sneezing ; and if 
severe, and the bronchial tube be affected, a cough wiU be the result. 
It is pretty well understood, when applied to ourselves, that a cold 


uncared for is most likely to lead to serious illness ; and it ia no less 
true of the dog. See also Oz^na. 

In puppies the symptoms of common cold may be mistaken for 
those of distemper ; and in older dogs, if unchecked and uncared for, 
it is likely to lead to bronchitis, inflammation of the lungs, or other 
dangerous disease. It is, therefore, ^ ery necessai-y to pay attention 
to the first appearance of a deviation from health in this direction, 
mindful of the old proverb that " a stitch in time saves nine," such as 
a coat placed upon the dog as previously advised under Beonchitis. 
Some hardy animals will need no further care than an extra warm 
bed and a warm supper ; but others will require more attention. If, 
conjointly with other symptoms mentioned, there be a scantiness of 
urine and costive bowels, give a dose of aperient medicine, followed 
by a few doses of Fever Mixture ; or tincture of camphor co. 15 to 
60 drops ; tincture of gentian, 20 to 60 drops ; spirits of aether oo. 
Jdr. to 2dr. in water three times a day. Remove any discharge from 
the eyes with warm water. If they are inflamed, bathe vnth the 
following lotion : Boracic acid, powdered, Iscr. ; distilled water to 
6oz. To allow the animal to breathe freely the nose must be bathed ; 
this will tend to prevent accumulations of mucus. During con- 
valescence the following tonic is useful : Easton's syrup, Joz. , water 
to 6oz. Dose, a dessertspoonful to a tablespoonful twice a day after 
food. Unless the cold has engendered some more dangerous com- 
plaint, this treatment will be all that is required. If the cough be 
severe, resort at once to the Gough Pills, which invariably relieve. 
See Cough. 

Coryza is the name given to a common cold when confined to 
the nose and eyes, and characterised by a running at the nose and 
watery eyes. I have found the following plan quickly cure it : 
Take a large sponge, wring it out of warm water, sprinkle it 
freely with vinegar of squUls, and hold it to the dog's nose, so that 
he inhales the fumes. Or half fill an upright jar or jug of suitable 
size with bran, saturate it with hot water, and sprinkle over and stir 
into the bran the following : A tablespoonful of ordinary vinegar, a 
teaspoonful of laudanum, and six drops of glycerine and carbolic 
acid (British Pharmacopoeia). Mix, and hold the dog's nose over it. 
This quantity to a double handful of bran in a quart or three-pint 
jar is suitable for a 201b. dog. 

CHEST-POXTWDBBi.— iSee Kennel-Lameness. 

CHOKING. — This accident is apt to occur with greedy animals 
that bolt their food. A bone, a piece of gristly meat, or other hard 
substance, is bolted, and sticks fast in its passage to the stomach. 


I always adopt the plan of reserving bones imtil after the dogs hare 
fed, for if given with the other food they are at once picked out, and 
the smaller ones are, when the dog is hungry, apt to be swallowed 
unmasticated, and produce choking. 

Frequently by manipulating the throat outside with the fingers 
the obstruction can be worked down the gullet ; or if it can be felt 
in the upper part of the throat, it may be removed by the throat 
forceps, which most veterinary surgeons keep by them. Woodroffe 
Hill recommends, when the substance is too low for extraction, and 
manipulating with the fingers externally fails, to endeavour gently 
to force it down with a piece of bent whalebone, having a piece of 
sponge tied to the end of it, and dipped in oH In using this extra 
care must be taken that the sponge is so firmly attached to the 
whalebone that it cannot slip off, for if swallowed it might effectually 
block up one of the smaller intestines ; therefore cut nicks in the 
whalebone, into which tie the piece of sponge. To prevent the pieca 
of sponge becoming lodged in the ossophagus a piece of thread should 
be inserted through it, and held in the hand as well as the whalebone, 
so that should it slip from the point of the whalebone, it may be 
recovered by pulling the string. I give these instructions as they 
may be useful ; but relief by hand is usually the only possible aid, 
and in most cases the dog would be dead before the instrument 
could be got ready. . Fortunately cases of choking are very rare. 
As soreness, if not actually laceration, is almost sure to be caused, 
the dog should for some days afterwards be restricted to soft food. 

CHOBEA. — This most distressing complaint arises from some 
derangement of the nervous system, and generally exists as a 
sequence of distemper, when it is known among kennel men as " the 
twitch." A disease in many respects resembling and often mis- 
taken for Chorea, or St. Vitus's Dance may, however, arise from 
other causes producing a disturbing effect on the nervous system, 
such as a severe injury or blow on the head, the irritation caused by 
worms, or long continued impaired digestion. This is not true 
chorea, which can only follow distemper. 

The symptom indicating chorea is a peculiar Involuntary con- 
vulsive twitching of the muscles. These spasmodic movements or 
jerkings may be either partial or general, but usually partial. One 
or both hind legs are affected ; or the twitching may extend to the 
muscles of the fore legs, neck, and shoulders, in which case the head 
is bobbed up and down in a silly, helpless manner. Sometimes the 
eyelids and muscles of the face are affected ; but whatever part of 
the body is attacked, the peculiar twitching or jerking is always un- 
mistakable. When the hindquarters are the seat of the disease, the 


dog will sometimes suddenly drop one of the Umbs from the hip 
joint, apparently from sudden loss of power or command over the 
guiding muscles. The weakness is strongly shown when the dog 
attempts to jump on to a chair or the lap, which he faUs to do, and 
generally falls helplessly on his side, "aU of a heap." few, if any 
dogs severely afflicted with chorea get completely cured. 

When the attack is but slight, the dog may Uve for years, and 
prove a useful animal, as, except in severe oases, it does not seem 
greatly to impair the general health. The constant twitching is, 
however, so annoying to most people, that few would care to keep a 
dog thus afflicted. 

Although dogs carefully and properly treated in distemper are less 
likely to suffer from this disease, yet it occurs in the best managed 
kennels, and so I must proceed to consider its treatment. The first 
thing to be done is to attend to the general health, and especially to 
see that the bowels are properly acting; and it is better, if their 
action require correction, to endeavour to accomplish that object 
by a careful regulation of diet, than to resort to physic. Indeed, 
all through chorea the food must be of a nature easily digested, and 
given with regularity, if any course of medicinal treatment is to be 
successful. The remedies recommended in chorea are arsenic, and 
nux vomica and its preparations, though the former I do not 

The following piUs I have found very successful. As the In- 
gredients require very great accuracy in weighing, and very careful 
mixing, the making of them must be left to a properly qualified 
dispensing chemist, and the box containing the piUs should be kept 
strictly in the master's possession, for fear of accidents : 

PiUs for Chorea. — Take strychnine, Igr. ; quinine, 18gr. ; extract 
of belladonna, 6gr. ; extract of gentian, Idr. ; powder for compound 
rhubarb piU, Idr. ; mix very carefully, and divide into forty-eight 
pills. Dose for a dog 201b. weight — one piU twice a day with his 

It is necessary in chorea to continue the use of these remedies for 
a considerable time — at least a month in most cases — to produce any 
satisfactory result, or even to give them a fair trial ; and, as before 
said, the dog must be carefully fed, well lodged, and properly 
exercised when he has sufficient power to use his Umbs. In the 
case of dogs reared in towns, a change to the country for some 
weeks would be beneficial. The electric battery has proved of greai 
benefit in many cases, and I advise a trial of it. 


Dogs used to the chase, or hunting in scrubby heather, or running 


much over hard, aneven roadg, suffer from sore toes; the parts 
Euround the roots of the claws are swollen, inflamed, and tender, 
making the dog lame, and, indeed, almost unable to get about ; there 
is redness between the toes, and sweating or thin serous discharge 

Such cases are often very difScult to cure. First give a dose of 
aperient medicine, and keep the dog up, giving him plenty of soft 
bedding, and a light diet. Foment the part night and morning with 
warm water, and bathe freely with this lotion ; Calomel, 2scr. ; lime 
water, 12oz. ; mix. Shake the bottle well when using it, which 
should be done four or five times a day. If the foregoing fail, ti7 
Goulard's Extract of Lead, 2dr. ; tincture of arnica, Joz. ; distilled 
water, 1 pint ; mix and apply freely four or five times a day. If 
the case is a very bad one, wrap the foot in a piece of lint saturated 
with the lotion, and puU over it a chamois leather boot, which the 
dog can be prevented from gnawing and pulling off by use of a 
muzzle over the mouth-part of which a piece of canvas has been 

CLAWS, OVERGROWN. — Lap-dogs and house pets which 
have little or no exercise out of doors, where they can dig and scrape 
the ground, and so wear the claws down, suffer from an overgrowth 
of liem. The naU curls round, and, if not cut in time, it grows 
into the sole of the foot, causing soreness and lameness. The ends 
of the claws should be cut off with a pair of sharp, strong nippers. 

In cases which have been neglected, the process of removal should 
be gradual, a small portion being taken off every few days or so 
until the claws are of the normal length. If the sole has been pene- 
trated, it will most likely fester, and should be freely bathed in warm 
water, poulticed, and the Carbolia Ointment afterwards applied. To 
prevent the dog from tearing the poultices off, the canvas -faced 
muzzle should be used. 

COLD Iir THE HEAD.— /9ee Catabbh. 

COLIC. — Nearly aU domestic animals are subject to attacks of 
ooUc, and the dog is no exception to it. Puppies are especially 
liable, but it attacks dogs of aU ages, and, if not promptly atten- 
ded to and properly treated, is very liable to end in inflammation 
of the bowels — a most dangerous disease, which, in some of its 
features, resembles colic. One very important point of distinction 
is, that whereas inflammation comes on gradually, with feverish- 
ness, hot, dry nose, etc., as premonitory symptoms, colic attacks 
suddenly, and a dog eating well and seemingly in perfect health is 


seized with spasm, causing such pain that he gives vent to a low 
moan, which, as the paroxysms of pain increase in frequency and 
severity, changes to a prolonged howl. In colic, too, the nose and 
mouth are cool, and there is no offensive hreath. As in inflamma- 
tion, the attitude is peculiar and umnistakahle ; the back is arched, 
the feet are drawn in towards each other, and the tail is tightly 
tucked between the legs. In coUc, the belly is sometimes distended 
considerably with gas, and the disease is then known as flatulent 
ooUc. The causes are, exposure to wet and cold, getting doga, 
especially house dogs, to swim in cold inclement weather, the 
presence of worms in the intestines, and the giving of improper food, 
such as sugar and other sweet things, the last being the commonest. 
Puppies just after weaning are very Uable to colic, especially if they 
have smaU lumps of meat, or other solid food, thrown to them, 
which they cannot well chew, but greedily bolt ; or if they have a 
portion of one meal left in the dish till the next meal is added, 
because the stale portion becomes sour, and the fermentation is 
carried on in the stomach. 

Colic is sure to yield to prompt and proper measures, and the 
treatment is simple and safe. As soon as observed, give the sufferer 
a dose of the Anti-spasmodic Drops, and if this does not afford 
relief, then give 5 to 30 drops of tincture of opium, with 5gr. to 
lOgr. of chloral. In flatulent colic, known by the distended belly 
sounding like a drum when tapped with the end of the finger, from 
10 to 30 drops of spirit of sal volatile may be advantageously added 
to the dose of Anti-spasmodic Drops ; or the following draught may 
be substituted, and repeated in an hour if the dog is not relieved ; 
carbonate of soda, 15gr. aromatic spirit of ammonia, 20 drops ; 
essence of ginger, 5 drops ; laudanum, 10 drops ; and peppermint 
water, 2 tablespoonfuls — a dose for a 201b. dog. In spasmodic coUc 
the following is useful : carbonate of soda 5gr. to 15gr. ; aromatic 
spirit of ammonia 10 to 20 drops ; tincture of ginger 5 to 10 drops in 
water every four hours. After the attack has subsided, give the dog 
a gentle aperient such as the Mild Purge, keep on a laxative diet, 
and for a few days give only gentle exercise. If worms are the cause, 
then a vermifuge should be administered after the painful symptoms 
have subsided. 

CONCUSSIOH' of the BBAIIT.— This often occurs in 
canine practice, and is due to accidents. In most oases the dog 
becomes unconscious, and the breathing is heavy or usually nearly 
imperceptible. Gradually consciousness returns, but often a stiff- 
ness of the limbs and an uncertain gait remain for a time. The 
treatment should consist in the administration of stimulants, but 


great care must be taken not to attempt forcing liquid upon an nn- 
eonseioua animal, or choking will be the inevitable result. Brandy 
can be injected under the sHn (snbcataneously). Ice when procur- 
able should be applied to the head and spinal cord, and ammonia to 
the nostrils. If there is a fracture of the skull, an operation wiU 
become necessary. A part of the bone may be pressing upon the 
brain, when it would have to be raised, and so relieve the pressure. 

CONSTXPATIOir.— iSTee Bowels, Obstbuction of. 


COKTZA.—See Catabbh. 

COSTIVENESS.— <9ee Bowels, Obstbttction of. 

OOTTGH, — Strictly speaking cough is merely a symptom of 
disease and not a disease in itself. To decide what particular 
disease is indicated by the cough, the concomitant symptoms and 
circumstances, as described under the special diseases which are 
usually preceded or accompanied by cough, must be taken into 
account, and the treatment called for in each case followed. 
Coughs vary as much in character as do the diseases of which 
they are in many cases the most pronounced indication. Thus, in 
common cold the cough is slight and humid ; iu bronchitis, 
bard, dry, and frequent ; and in inflammation of the lungs, short 
and suppressed, doubtless from the pain caused by the effort. 
When the throat is sore, the cough is hoarse and generally 
accompanied by mora or less difficulty in swallowing ; in asthma, 
the cough may be described as wheezy, and is often followed 
by retchiag or vomiting. Cough in distemper has a peculiar 
husky, hoUow sound. Cough may be produced by a bit of bone 
or other substance sticking in the throat and causing irritation, 
in which case it is the natural effort to get relief, and ceases with 
the removal of the irritating cause. As cough is almost invariably 
connected with some derangement of the respiratory organs, or air- 
passages, its warning should never be neglected, and an early resort 
to the use of the Coiigh Fills will be sure to relieve, will frequently 
cure, and can, under no circumstances, do any harm. 

Coiigh SExtures. — 1 part paregoric elixir, with 3 parts of the syrup 
or the oxymel of squilla A teaspoonful is a dose for a 201b. dog. 
Liquor morphias mur., Idr. ; spirits of camphor oo., 2dr, ; ipe- 
cacuanha wine, Idr. ; glycerine Joz., water to 3oz. Dose, a tea- 
spoonful to a dessertspoonful three times a day. 

If the cough is due to a sore throat, 5gi'. to lOgr. of chlorate of 
potash three or four times a day, vdll relieve it, as also will a piece 


Df spongio-pilin soaked in hot water, and applied to the throat, 
keeping the same in position by means of a bandage. 

CKASIjE. — This appliance is sometimes advocated to prevent 
the dog from tearing off surgical bandages, Ucking poisonous 
applications, etc., but it is never successful. 

CBAMP. — This term is often indiscriminately applied by sports- 
men to spasm from whatever cause ; but cramp of the limbs from 
exposure to cold and wet often occurs, and it will quickly yield to 
brisk rubbing and warmth. If nothing else is handy, rub with a 
little spirit and water or a rough dry cloth. Dogs used in hunting 
or retrieving from water— ^especially if the shooting is done from a 
punt — are very liable to it, the hindquarters being most frequently 
affected, and in such cases a good brisk liniment, such as the follow- 
ing, should be carried in the boat : 

Stimulating Liniment. — Compound camphor liniment, 3oz. ; oUve 
oil, spirit of turpentine, and spirit of hartshorn, of each loz. ; mix. 
A hot bath is also very effective, especially if the dog is afterwards 
gently rubbed ; care must, however, be taken to dry the animal. 

CBiOOKliB LIMBS.— <$ee BiCKExa 

CUSS AND TEAS.S.— -See Woumds. 

CXSTIC CAICULI.— -See Calculi. 


DEAFNESS. — A very considerable number of dogs suffer from 
deafne^. In many the disease is congenital, but I do not know that 
lit is hereditary ; and I am quite at a loss to explain why congenital 
deafness is so much of tener seen in white dogs, or those with a pre- 
ponderance of white, than in those of any other colour. BuUdogs, 
bull terriers, and white English terriers seem to be peculiarly liable 
to this defect. Deafness is also frequently caused by accumulations 
of wax ; this can be removed by syringing the ear daily with 1 part 
of spirits of wine, and 20 parts of wann water, afterwards drying 
the ear thoroughly, by means of a piece of wool rolled upon a probe 
or pointed piece of stick. Several fresh pieces of wool will be 
necessary. Canker is also a fruitful cause of deafness. 

I know of no treatment for congenital deafness Kkely to be of any 
use except when it is caused by a morbid growth capable of being re- 
moved- Among other causes producing deafness, blows may be men- 
Uoned ; also lugging at the ear — a most brutsJ mode of punishment 


often resorted to by keepers and those having the care of sporting field 
dogs — and the lodgment of water in the ear cavity. In the latter 
case, pouring in a little pure oU of sweet almonds may give relief ; 
and in the other cases the treatment recommended for internal 
canker may be beneficially followed with, in addition, the application 
of a blister behind the ears. Whilst the dog is under treatment, 
cooling aperient medicine should be given, and a light diet, with gi-een 
vegetables, adopted. Dogs bom deaf seem to have their other senses 
q^uickened ; they are generally remarkably sharp at interpreting 
signs given by the master, and anyone rearing a deaf dog should 
adopt a system of signs and keep to them. 

DEBILITY AITD WASTING.— It sometimes happens that 
a dog is observed to gradually become weak, and to waste in flesh 
without any apparent cause. In such cases give a dose of the 
Podophyllin Pills every second or third night tiU three doses have 
been administered ; 10 to 60 drops of Easton's Syrup, in water, twice 
or three times a day, after food, will also be productive of good. 
Add to the diet some raw lean meat three times a day, Avith a dose of 
pepsin porei sprinkled over each portion, and carefully look for any 
symptoms of divergence from health which may indicate the cause of 
the trouble. 

DESTRTTCTION OF DOGS.— It is often necessary to 

destroy dogs that have become so crippled or injured as to make 
cure very doubtful ; and in most litters of puppies there are some 
so puny or so wanting in the characteristics of the breed that they 
ought not to be reared. In the latter case it is most humane to 
destroy such as are not wanted as soon after they are bom as 
possible ; but even when a misalliance has taken place, one at least 
of the puppies should be left with the dam, unless one or more foster 
pups of pure blood can be substituted. For destroying young puppies 
there is no more convenient or less painful method than drowning ; 
while for matiire dogs a teaspoonful of Scheele's prussic acid will 
cause instantaneous death. In giving it, the mouth of the dog 
should be held open and upwards, and the acid poured well back on 
the tongue. The very greatest care is however necessary in dealing 
with a drug of such potency ; and it would be highly dangerous to 
life if any of it were spilled over a cut or wound. At the Dogs' 
Home, Batteraea Park, London, where large numbers of dogs have 
to be destroyed, a lethal chamber, the suggestion of Dr. Kichardson, 
is used. In this chamber a number of " dogs are placed, and 
death is soon produced, unconsciousness to pain being immediate. 


DEW C^AWS, once regarded in fanciera' oirclea as the ia- 
heritance of a few favoured breeds, are now generally \'o ted as uaelesa 
appendages whose removal is desirahle. They should be taken off 
when the pups are with the dam, and this can be easily done with 
a pair of strong scissors. If left till the dog is older, they are liable 
to bleed profusely, and the pain, of course, is greater. In such a 
case, the wound produced by the excision should be at once well 
saturated with Friar's balsam. If it ia thought well to remove the 
nail only, that can be done by pulling it out with a pair of nippers. 

DIABIaT£S is characterised by an abnormal flow of urine, caused 
by derangement of some of the assimilative organs ; when long 
established it produces great emaciation and weakness. The treat- 
ment consists in giving first a few doses of a mild pm-gative, such as 
the PodopJiyllin Pills. To allay the thirst which is always present 
in diabetes give twice a day 5 to 30 drops of phosphoric acid, 
largely diluted with water, and to strengthen the system 2gr. to 
5gr. of sulphate of iron twice a day in water. If the excessive flow 
of urine continues after this treatment, resort must be had to opium, 
iodine, alum, oak-bark, or its preparations. The following bolus 
may prove useful in such cases : 

Astringent Bolus for Diabetes. — Take gallic acid, Idr. ; powdered 
alum, Idr. ; powdered opium, 12gr. ; gum sufficient to form a 
mass ; divide into twenty-four piUs. Dose for a 201b. dog, one 
twice a day. Where the animal is weak and the appetite impaired, 
Igr. of quinine may be added to each piU. 

SIABKECSA. — This disease is of very frequent occurrence, 
and more particularly in young puppies and in old and overfed 
dogs. It generally exists as a result of indigestion brought on by 
improper feeding. The practice of leaving stale food from one meaJ 
to another is a common cause of diarrhoea, which may be classed as 
acwte and chronic. In the acute form there is much looseness of the 
bowels, frequently accompanied or preceded by copious vomiting of 
acrid, ofiensive matter ; while the evacuations are loose, wateiy, 
and offensive. If not checked, it soon produces excessive weakness, 
and, especially in puppies, is the cause of great mortality. In the 
chronic state the disease is slower in its progress and longer in its 
duration. It may be set up by a diseased liver and excess of bile ; 
or it may be the result of inflammation of the bowels. A by no 
means uncommon cause is the abuse of calomel and other mercurials, 
these being "specifics" with many persons for all dog diseases. 
Diarrhoea often finishes up the work of distemper, and this is so in 
most cases where, as too frequently happens, mercurials have been 


relied on as a cure for that disease. Worms are also a common 
cause of diarrhoea, and when these exist the nature of the discharge 
is variable, frequent and small in quantity, sometimes lumpy, 
followed by gelatinous, glairy matter, and often frothy and covered 
with small air-bubbles. Exhalations from accumulations of filth, 
especially in low-lying, damp, badly drained and badly ventilated 
kennels, also cause diarrhoea. 

In treating diarrhoea it is often of considerable advantage to give 
a mild purge, to remove the irritating cause. Castor oil is very 
suitable; and if there is evidence of much pain attending the 
disease, a dose of laudanum may be added. lOgr. to 60gr. of 
carbonate of bismuth, given dry, twice or thrice a day upon the 
tongue, is also very useful. So is : prepared chalk, Joz. ; chlorodyne, 
Idr. ; solution of gum tragacanth, loz. ; water to 8oz. Of the 
latter a dessertspoonful to a tablespoonful should be given three 
or four times a day. If the case is not particularly severe, but 
obstinate, then give ^oz, to loz. three times a day of — tincture of 
rhubarb, loz. ; tincture of opium, 2dr. ; peppermint water, to 6oz. 
Another remedy in diarrhoea which very rarely fails to check it if 
the patient at the same time receives proper attention in other 
respects, is : 

Astringent Anodyne Mixtu/refor Diarrhcea. — Take prepared chalk, 
3dr. ; aromatic confection (powder), 2dr. ; powdered gum acacia, 
Idr. ; tincture of opium (laudanum), loz. ; oil of cassia, 6 or 8 
drops ; tincture of catechu, 3dr. ; spirit of sal volatile, 2dr. ; water 
sufficient to nmke 8oz. The powders must be nibbed very finely in 
a mortar, the oil of cassia with them ; the water must be gradually 
added, and the whole should form a smooth mixture. The tinctures 
should be added in the bottle. Of this mixtirre the dose will be 
from a half to two teaspoonfuls for puppies, and one tablespoonful 
for 201b. dogs, given every three or four hours, as long as the purg- 
ing continues. The bottle must be well shaken before measuring 
the dose. 

For convenience of form, the following mixture may, under some 
circumstancea, be preferred, as it keeps well and is in less compass : 

Astringent Anodyne Drops. — Take spirit of camphor, 2dT. ; lauda- 
num, Joz. ; spirit of sal volatile, 2dr. ; tincture of catechu, loz., mix. 
Dose, from 20 drops to a teaspoonful in water every three or four 
hours, if required. 

If the diarrhoea is very persistent, and accompanied by blood, 
inject twice a day into the rectum 2gr. to 5gr. of sulphate of copper 
with 15 to 60 drops of tincture of opium, La 4oz. of water. If 
this does not check it, then give Jgr. to Jgr. of sulphate of copper, 
increasing the dose to Igr. with Jgr. to Igr. of powdered opium. 


The diet must be very carefully regulated all through the disease. 
All milk given should be slightly thickened with arrowroot. Such 
light and easily-digested food as weU-boUed oatmeal, rice, or arrow- 
root should be given, with milk or beef -tea ; and if the patient refuse 
to feed, a little should be given with a spoon or a drencher every two 
or three hovirs. When the dog is very weak, add a little port wine 
to the food ; instead of plain water, give rice or barley-water to drink, 
In the case of bitches suckling, the diet must be changed, a dose 
of castor oil given, and the Astringent Anodyne Mixture in small 

It is most important that rigorous cleanliness should be observed. 
AJl discharges should be immediately removed, and the animal kept 
clean by sponging with lukewarm water if necessary, while disinfec- 
tants should be sprinkled about. The patient should also be kept 
warm, and left as quiet and undisturbed as possible. 

DIPHTHEKIA. — Dogs, it is held by some veterinarians, are 
liable to this alarming and fatal disease. A case is on record where 
the disease was communicated to a dog which had the remains of food 
given to it that had been partaken of by a child suffering from 
diphtheria. I have no advice to offer as to treatment in such cases. 
The slightest suspicion of diphtheria suggests isolation, redoubled 
attention to sanitary measures, and the immediate calling in of a 
veterinary surgeon. It seems reasonable that if man can communi- 
cate this disease to the dog, on the other hand the dog may be a 
medium for carrying the contagion from place to place ; and it has 
often occurred to me that great danger lurks in the practice of allow- 
ing ownerless dogs to prowl about the streets, picking up their living 
in the gutters and from refuse-heaps. May they not in this way 
cariy the contagion of many virulent diseases ? 

SISIiOCATIOITS. — Displacements of the joints are not un- 
common, the hip being most often dislocated, but they also occur with 
the shoulder, knee, stifle, elbow, and toes. Some dislocations are 
accompanied by fracture, adding greatly to the difficulty of treat- 
ment ; and even in simple dislocations the reduction of them should 
be entrusted to a veterinai-y surgeon, whose knowledge of anatomy 
and experience in operations of the kind would enable him to perform 
it more readily, and with the least possible pain to the dog ; indeed, 
dogs under such operations have now, as a rule, anaesthetics ad- 
ministered. Where professional aid cannot be obtained, the person 
proposing to reduce the luxation should first examine and determine 
In what direction the bone is parted from its socket ; for instance, in 
dislocation of the hip, the head of the thigh-bone is generally carried 

60 DISEASES or Doas. 

upwards and backwards, so much so that the dlrecQon is ap- 
parent to the eye, as the injured side is thereby made higher, and it 
can be also readily felt. The assistant should hold the dog round 
the loins steady in one position, whilst the operator, taking hold of 
the dislocated Umb above the stifle-joiat, must retract the thigh 
bone downwards and forwards. The same principle must guide 
similar operations for the reduction of dislocation of other joints. 
It will be evident that rest will be needed, and much exercise cannot 
be safely allowed for some time. There is always a disposition to 
repetition of dislocation. 

DISTEISFES.— This is the malady of dogs most general and 
fatal, and with the exception of rabies the most dreaded. When first 
discovered in France, from which country we imported it, it was and 
is still named distemper, yet it has always appeared to me that the 
name is unhappily chosen, as being too indefinite for coirect applica- 
tion to a disease marked by such varying phases. The term is 
used very loosely; and if a horse has the " strangles," a pig the 
"measles," or the cattle are suffering, no matter from what — foot- 
and-mouth disease, pleuro-pneumonia, or rinderpest, this convenient 
word is forced into service, and made to do duty for aU. Distemper 
Js also known as the " dog-Ul " ; the Scotch term for it, "snifters," 
is to a certain extent better, as graphically conveying to the mind 
one important feature of the disease, namely, the snifting noise — 
half cough, half sneeze — made by the dog in his efforts to get rid of 
the niatter which accumulates in the nostrils ; but that- term is too 
limited to adequately describe a disease which has been well called 
" the scourge of the kennel," and which assumes so many forms and 
complications that it has been well called the Protean malady. 

The exact date when this disease first appeared in England is not 
certain, but probably it w^as introduced about the beginning of the 
last century, or the end of the seventeenth. Gervase Markham, 
who, early in the seventeenth century, wrote copiously about dogs, 
horses, and their diseases, does not mention it by name, or describe 
it ; and Nicholas Cox, in " The Gentleman's Recreations," published 
1677, is also silent about it, although he refers to madnees, swelling 
in the throat, mange, formica, etc., the last being what we now 
call canker of the ear. That the disease was recognised on the 
Continent before it was in this country is evident from the fact that 
it is referred to by French writers of sporting books at a period 
earlier than any of our own writers have noticed it, and considering 
how contagious it is, the presumption is that it was brought from 
France through imported dogs. However that may bo, it is now a 
Qrmly established disease among us, and one that up to recent yean 


had not received the amount of scientific attention its importance 
deserved. Nearly every gamekeeper and kennelman believes himself 
possessed of an unfailing cure for it ; but those who know most of 
its versatile character and dangerous complications are the most 
cautious in prognosticating a cure, and the most careful in watching 
the altering symptoms, and varying their treatment to meet the 
individual case. 

Distemper, when first observed, appeared as an occasional epi- 
demic ; and no doubt it stiU, to a considerable extent, sustains that 
character, raging in certain districts whilst other parts of the 
country are comparatively free. But I do not think it is now so 
markedly epidemic as formerly ; in fact, it may be said to be general 
and perenniaJ, always existing more or less all over the country; and 
this is to be accounted for by the vastly increased intercourse 
between dogs from great distances brought together by the numerous 
shows held. It is well known that distemper breaks out in numbers 
of kennels after some shows, especially those that are prolonged, 
and where puppy classes are encouraged ; in fact, each one of these 
shows, as at present regulated, may be described as a centre from 
which disease is disseminated to aU quarters. The spread of 
distemper is also now well provided for by the immense traffic 
in dogs, these animals by hundreds, if not thousands, changing 
hands every week, being sent to and fro between all parts of the 
pountry, and often in railway dog boxes constructed apparently so 
as best to insure the healthy occupant becoming infected with the 
ailment of his diseased predecessor, while that end is further secured 
by the dirty state in which the boxes are frequently kept. Occasion- 
ally, too, distemper is imported by ferrets suffering from the disease. 

Young dogs — those in their puppyhood, that is to say, under 
twelve months old — are most subject to distemper ; but the disease 
attacks dogs of mature age. As a general rule, one attack gives 
immunity from a subsequent one, yet there are instances of dogs 
suffering a second time, and Blaine says even a third time. A good 
many instances have come under my own observation oonfirmatoi-y 
of this view, and it is the more necessary to notice it because the 
popular belief is that a dog never has distemper more than once. 

It is a very common opinion that certain breeds of dogs are 
peculiarly liable to this disease, but it is not the special inheritance 
of any one or two varieties : the whole domesticated race of dogs 
suffer from it. Fatality under distemper is not a question of breed, 
but of constitution, as that has been affected by a more or less arti- 
ficial Ufe, and a forced and unnatural system of breeding. It is the 
highly-bred dog, not the mongrel, that is apt to suffer most severely ; 
and tiiia would be far more manifest were it not for the contrast in 

K 3 

02 DisBASKs or Doaa. 

care and attention, in housing, feeding, etc. , between tlie two. No. 
doubt in-and-in breeding, and breeding for certain artificial or fancy 
points, generation after generation, weaken the constitution, and 
make dogs more likely to succumb to distemper. The dainty- 
feeding pup, the pot-bellied, and the ricketty are the sort that most 
frequently die, and that irrespective of breed. 

Equally common is the impression that it is an absolute necessity 
of dog life that each animal should suffer from this disease. But it 
is not so ; many never pass through the trying ordeal. Still, it is 
quite a wise thing to inquire before buying a young dog whether he 
has been "through distemper." 

Causes of Distemper. — These may be said to divide themselves 
into the immediate and remote, the evident and the obscure ; but 
then it must never be forgotten that " the eye sees only that which 
it brings with it the power of seeing " ; and a cause self-evident to 
the veterinary pathologist would by no means be apparent to the 
casual observer. The disease has now been so long established in 
our kennels that there appears to be an hereditary tendency in some 
strains to it ; but this predisposition must be encouraged by some 
generating cause, although so slight that it would not affect another 
in which the disease was not inherent. Badly drained and ill -venti- 
lated kennels, and especially if added to these conditions there is a 
want of thorough cleanliness, are the natural homes of distemper. 
Exposure to damp and oold, bad or injudicious feeding, whether poor 
food or excess of it, predispose to it, as it often follows on common 
oolds and derangement of the digestive and other organs, the 
immediate result of such treatment. Contagion is, however, the 
only cause. Distemper being a specific disease it cannot originate 
spontaneously ; it is due to a epecifio virus. Spontaneous origin, no 
matter to what applied, is, to say the least, doubtful. 

I leave the above standing in this edition, because it fairly 
represonts the state of knowledge and belief concerning distemper 
when ihis book was first published thirty years ago. Indeed, I 
might say that the errors in it are given witi an unwillingness of 
consent, and an evident strong bias in favour of some specific " gene- 
rating cause," although the nature of that cause was unknovm to 
me. My mistake was the mistake of the time — the veil had not 
been lifted, which, now removed, reveals to us the true and only 
cause of distemper. 

At the time I wrote, and since, veterinarians of eminence wrote to 
the same effect. Professor Law says, " change of climate, teething, 
and contagion are the causes." Professor J. Woodroffe Hill says, 
"contagion, badly-drained and iU-ventilated kennels, exposure to 
damp and oold, insufficient feeding, poor food, over-feeding (particn- 


larly with flesh), and too little exercise " — also " oftentimes it is 
undoubtedly self -generating." Moore, M.R.C.V.S. (HomoeopatUst), 
says, " undoubtedly contagious. . . The most frequently exciting 
causes are exposm-e to damp and cold, and whatever produces debility 
of the system, such as rickets, mange, catarrh, etc." I might quote 
many other writers to the same effect. Let us consider seriatim the 
causes to which distemper has been attributed. 

Self-generation or Spontaneotis Origin. — The idea of the spontaneous 
origin of disease is dead to the scientific mind — it was never more 
than a euphemism of Dr. Johnson's blunt expression " ignorance ; 
sheer ignorance, sir," for it comes natural to man to let himself down 
easy when he does not sit sure. Out of nothing, nothing oomes, is a 
traism, and when we speak of spontaneous origin, whether of a plant 
or a disease, we really mean that so far the cause is undiscovered by 
us. The number of diseases under that category are rapidly becom- 
ing fewer, and will ultimately disappear before the advancing light 
of Science ; and most fortunately so, for when the cause of disease 
is known, its prevention is much easier than its cure when established. 

Contagion. — This is the sole cause of distemper. But it is necessary 
that we should have a clear idea of what we mean by contagion. I 
am not sure that the most wide-spread notion of contagion is not 
expressed ia the two words " bad smells," some going a step farther 
and holding a general opinion that bad smells create, or are associated 
with, contagion. But this is not so ; the dirty, ill-drained, ill-venti- 
lated kennel tends to lower the vitality of its inmates, and, as a 
consequence, their power of resisting any disease by which they may 
be attacked, and at the same time it affords good harbourage for the 
preservation of the germs of various diseases. So in respect to cold 
and damp ; exposure to these produce evil results, but not the specific 
disease we call distemper. 

Again, teething although causing some amount of fever and 
derangement of functional organs, has no other connection with 
distemper than the accident of their frequent and simultaneous 
presence; and the same remark applies to the assumption of in- 
testinal worms as a cause. We have to realise that contagion is 
something actually in being, though outside the ken of our unaided 
senses, and not a mere figure of speech representing the unknown. 
To our aid has come the science of bacteriology, and to its fore- 
most students, M. Pasteur and Dr. Koch, with their increasing 
number of followers, we are indebted for the knowledge that such 
diseases as rabies, anthrax, diphtheria, distemper, ete., are each due 
to the presence of a distinct bacterium, or microbe ; and by contagion 
we mean the transmission of these from a diseased to a healthy body, 
whether direct or by means of an intermediary. I do not know 


whether the microbe of distemper has been ao minutely observed as 
to be individualised by form and size, but it has been isolated, and 
the late Sir Everett Millais cultivated it artificially, so that 
puppies can be infected as easily as by inoculating them with 
discbajged matter from a diseased dog ; and we may look with confi- 
dence to a time near at hand, when an attenuated virus of distemper 
so cultivated may be used to produce a mild attack in puppies which 
will shield them from contracting the disease in the natural way, 
and preserve them from the disastrous and highly fatal effects of tMs 
scourge of our kennels. 

Preventive Measures. — There is no specific preventive at present; 
the true prophylactic we look for in the system of inoculation with 
attenuated vims, just referred to ; and the aim of the breeder should 
be to have pups fortified against its attacks by a robust constitution. 
This is to be attained by breeding only from healthy parents, of 
proper age, and not too closely related. From the birth mother and 
pups should be well fed and nourished, and kept under proper sani- 
taiy conditions. The dog, being a carnivorous animal, more or less 
meat seems almost a necessity of health to him ; but in the artificial 
Uf e he leads, much less than his inclinations would dictate is required, 
and excessive feeding would be more likely to predispose to distempei 
than to prevent it. 

Vaccination has been tried as a preventive of distemper, but has 
proved of doubtful worth. 

Dog shows are the most prolific of all sources for the spread of 
distemper, and as these are ostensibly held for the improvement and 
cultivation of pui-e breeds, it behoves those who organise and manage 
them to take every possible precaution against the propagation 
of this destructive malady. The disinfection of the benches, etc., 
after each show, which has been adopted for the last few years, has 
not proved sufficient. Exhibitors should be required to declare the 
dog exhibited free from distemper, and that for a given time he has 
not been in contact with a diseased dog. It seems probable that 
visitors to shows having dogs at home suffering from distemper, 
may carry the contagion with them and if the supposition is correct, 
it is difficult to prevent the evil in any other way than by impressing 
on the minds of all the danger of so doing, and that is necessarily a 
difficult and slow process. One prolific cause of distribution of the 
distemper germs at shows is to a great extent under contiol of the 
management. Instead of employing attendants got together at 
random, and such as are connected with dogs kept under question- 
able sanitary conditions, a staff should be carefully selected, and 
these men should wear uniforms of washable material, and be each 
H>ufined to one section i>l the exhibition. - ' 


The preventive measures for the home kennels are avoidance of 
contact between diseased dogs and your own. Before Introducing a 
new tenant to your Icennels, place it in quarantine for three weeks. 
When one or mora dogs are seized with distemper, isolate them from 
the healthy ones. If one person has to attend to all, let the patients 
bo visited last ; use washable overclothes, change the boots, and 
disinfect the hands with Sanitas, Jeyea, or Izal on leaving the 
diseased dogs. 

General Symptoms. — The symptoms in distemper present very con- 
siderable variation, according to the particular local complications 
which are developed ; they are also dependent on the severity of the 
attack, and the rapidity with which the disease progresses. As a 
rule, the first observable symptoms are great lassitude and dulness 
shown in the eyes, in a disinclination to play or exercise, in a decided 
preference for warmth, the dog creeping into the warmest comer or 
crouching before the fire, and in the general languor that appears to 
benumb the dog's energies like the iacubus of a nightmare ; so that 
the hitherto lively dog, instead of jumping with delight at his 
master's call, merely replies with a spiritless wag of the tail and a 
dismal woe-begone look. Loss of appetite is an invariable symptom, 
and feverishness succeeds, as shown by the hot, dry nose, accom- 
panied by alternate fits of heat and shivering ; considerable thirst is 
frequently present, the bowels are generally deranged — sometimes 
relaxed, sometimes constipated — the urine is scanty and highly 
coloured, the coat usually rough and staring, retching and vomiting 
often occur, a thin, watery discharge from the nose and eyes sets in, 
accompanied by a scarlet hue of the membranes, and the eyes appear 
unusually sensitive to light. A short, dry husky cough and snift- 
ing or sneezing occur, especially when the animal is brought into 
the open air. The discharge from eyes and nose (sometimes the first 
sign of the disease observed by the owner) gradually becomes more 
purulent, sticking in the nostrils and glueing the eyelids together, 
especially in the morning, causing the dog much annoyance in that 
way, but still more by obstructing respiration, when his constant 
efforts to clear the nostrils produce that peculiar noise which has 
earned for the disease the popular name of "snifters." In many 
cases the eye is seriously affected. A small white speck may be 
observed, which gradually widens and deepens until an ulcer is 
formed ; and although the eye may protrude, and the whole appear- 
ance give the impression that the sight ia lost, yet as the disease sub- 
sides the eye gradually returns to ii* natural condition. The symp- 
toms are not in every case so clearly marked, and the disease may 
have gone on for a few days, or a week, unnoticed, or it may have 
been mistaken for a common cold. There is, however, one invariable 

£6 DisKAs^ or Doas. 

and nmni^takable feature of distemper, which distinguishes it from 
any of the diseases with which it might otherwise be confounded, 
and that is the very rapid loss of flesh and strength which takes 
place — a strong, fat dog being in many cases reduced in a week or so 
to a mere skeleton, scarcely able to move about. Such are the general 
symptoms of an ordinary attack of distemper in its earlier stages, 
some or all of which may be observed in a more or less marked 
degree. In a mild attack, and even in severer ones, with proper 
treatment, these untoward conditions gradually abate, and restora- 
tion to health takes place. On the other hand, even with the best 
of care and the most judicious treatment, there are cases in which 
dangerous complications of disease in the head, chest, or bowels 
arise, requiring the utmost attention, prompt measures, and skilful 
management. In all cases of distemper a flannel ooat should be 
placed upon the animal. 

Abdominal Distemper. — When the bowels are the subject of 
serious attack ; that is, if violent diarrhoea or dysentery supervene, 
or if " the yellows " make their appearance (for slight derange- 
ment of the liver is almost invariable) this is often aggravated, ff 
not produced, by the abuse of powerful and unsuitable drugs. When 
these have been resorted to, as is too often the case, by people 
ignorant of their nature and properties, and given by the rule of 
thumb, the poor dog's case is indeed perilous, for in the midst of the 
battle with the most dangerous and insidious enemy to canine life, 
another foe appears to finish up the work of death well begun. In 
such cases, violent diarrhoea — the evacuations consisting of a thin 
watery matter, undigested food, or black pitchy faeces mixed with 
blood — generally comes on when the disease has lasted a week or ten 
days, and, unless cheeked by proper treatment in. its earlier stages, 
almost invariably proves fatal. The best treatment in such cases 
has been given under Diarrhoea and Dysentery. If the dog has 
been constipated previous to the attack of distemper, and no heed 
has been taken of his condition, it is very likely to result in the 
" yellows." This condition is denoted by the yellow appearance of 
the eyes, gums, lips, etc., and in severe cases of the whole skin — 
more particularly observable on the inner surface of the ears, inside 
the thighs, and on the belly — the urine is strongly tinged with yellow 
and the discharge from the bowels is unnatural in colour and 
offensive. Fuller treatment is given under the head of Jadndiob, 

Chest Distem.per. — In all cases the respiratory organs are 
more or less affected, and the disease seems to extend to all the 
mucous membranes ; and when the more important organs of respira- 
tion — the lungs, etc. — ai-e attacked, it is called chest distemper. In 


these cases the breathing is quicker and becomes painful, tiie cough 
is deeper in sound, harsher, and evidently more painful, and the 
pulse is raised very much from the nomMil, 100 to lOlF. , to from 105F. 
to 106F. The dog should in this case be kept warm, and have a 
comfortable bed, but not stifled with clothing or by the atmo- 
sphere of an unventilated room, for pure fresh air is an absolute 
necessity to recovery. If the throat is sore, which the hoarse, husky 
bark will show, relief may be given by the electuary prescribed for 
Bkonchitis, and by blistering the throat or applying poultices. 
Large hot poultices to the sides, frequently changed so as to keep 
up the heat, prove beneficial, and the general treatment afterwards 
alluded to, and that prescribed under Bronchitis, or Inflam- 
mation OF THE Lungs, should be adopted. 

Head Distemper. — When the head is the seat of the local 
disease in distemper, it is sometimes ushered in by what is known as 
a "distemper fit," and is a sure sign of congestion or inflammation 
of the brain or its membranes ; this is also shown by the greatly 
increased heat of the whole head, and the bloodshot appearance of 
the eyes, which in such cases are painfully sensitive to light. If the 
inflammation be not reduced, a succession of fits generally follows, in 
one of which the dog dies. 

The teeth being generally furred, they should be cleansed by a 
piece of tow which has been dipped in a weak solution of Condy's 
Fluid. The eyes should be sponged with the following lotion : 
boracic acid, Iscr. ; distilled water to 6oz. The following mixture is 
useful : saUcine, 2dr. ; tincture of gentian, Joz. ; water to 6oz. The 
salicine must be dissolved in hot water, and a teaspoonful to a table- 
spoonful given three times a day. 

Concentrated Cooling Lotion. — Take powdered sal ammoniac, 4oz. ; 
boiling water, J pint ; strong acetic acid, J pint ; methylated spirit, 
4oz. Dissolve as much as possible of the sal ammoniac in the boil- 
ing water by rubbing in a mortar, and the residue with the acetic 
acid, adding the spirit to the stock bottle when the solution is cold. 
In using this a large wineglassful must be mixed with a pint of oold 
water, and it is important that it should be unremittingly applied to 
the head by a cloth for several hours, care being taken to keep it out 
of the eyes. 

When fits are frequent or severe, 6gr. of bromide of potassium 
given to a dog of 201b. will often afford relief ; but it is seldom that 
the dog recovers from attacks of this nature. 

Simple Distemper. — In mUd attacks, or what may be called 
"simple distemper," hygienic measures, good nursing, and careful 
dieting are often all-sufficient to see the patient through. The 


following, however, is a capital mixture ; tincture of cinchona co., 
loz, ; liquor cinchonae flay. , Jdr. ; aromatic spirits of ammonia, ^oz. ; 
water to 8oz. Dose, a dessertspoonful to a tablespoonfol. It is often 
however, of benefit, even in the mildest attacks, to give a mild dose 
of aperient medicine. When the matter from the eyes and nose is at 
aU thick and sticky, resort should be had to the steaming recom- 
mended for COBYZA. 

Fnstxilar Eruption in Distemper.— The skin tn distemper, 
especially inside the thighs, on the chest, and on the beUy, is often 
covered -vsith a pustular eruption, discharging a thin mattery sub- 
stance tinged with blood, and this forms into scabs. As the pustules 
break, the exuded matter should be carefully wiped off with a soft 
rag or sponge, dipped in tepid water containing a small quantity 
of Condy's Fluid. This eruption of pimples is often a favourable 
sign, but, on the other hand, it appears at a stage of the disease 
when the dog has become greatly weakened ; and, whilst giving 
the distemper mixture to aid in throwing out this poison from the 
system, the patient should also have tonics and as much strengthen- 
ing food as the stomach will bear. This phase of the disease is 
oftenest seen when the Uver and bowels have been attacked. 

Seq.nela of Distemper. — Occasionally during the attack of dis- 
temper, but generally as a sequel to it, either paralysis or chorea, 
called "the twitches," or "the trembles," appears. These require 
special treatment, and are referred to under their respective 

Having attempted as plainly as possible to describe the various 
symptoms of this disease, and the complications which often 
attend it, I will now endeavour to point out what experience has 
taught me to be the most successful treatment. To enumerate the 
popular cures for this disease would occupy much space for Uttle 
profit. Mercury, in one form or another, figures largely in the 
Ust, particularly calomel and Ethiop's mineral ; the former is a 
very dangerous drug, and the cause of great mortality among dogs 
and the latter an almost inert preparation. Emetics, too, are 
widely popular and grossly abused ; but nearly every locality has 
its own specific. In addition, we have those wondeiiul nostrums, 
never known to fail, which are palmed on and purchased by a too 
credulous public. It should not be necessaiy to tell anyone who 
has watched the progress of this disease in bis own dog, that an 
Infallible specific for distemper, with its varied and dangerous forms, 
is not likely to bo speedily met with. 

The dog-owner who has puppies growing up should alv/ays be 
on the look-out for distemper, and, on its first symptoms, address 


bimsell to its treatment, for in this, as in othei things, a stitch in 
time saves nine. As the disease appears, the dog must be taken 
in hcmd, and his comfort seen to. In many cases a mild emetic of 
ipecacuanha wine or antimonial wine may be given, for these are 
often beneficiaJi when judiciously used, although detrimental when 
abused, as emetics often are. The bowels, as well as the stomach, 
should be emptied, and for this purpose we must be guided in our 
choice of drugs by the constitutional strength, age, and general 
state of the dog. For very delicate animals a laxative of oUve oil 
or linseed oil answers best, while stronger ones may have castor oil 
or the Mild Purge ; but when the dog is strong enough, as is the 
ease with many breeds, I have not found anything so suitable as 

Compound Podophyllin Pills. — Take podophylUn, 6gr. ; compound 
extract of oolocynth, 30gr. ; powdered rhubarb, 48gr. ; extract of 
henbane, 36gr. ; mix and divide into twenty -four piUs. The dose 
for a 201b. puppy is one pUl, and it is advisable to give warm 
broth after the piU to assist in its action. 

As soon as the bowels have been freely acted on, begin with 
the following mixture, giving a dose of it regularly every four 
or six hours as long as any feverish or inflammatoiy symptoms 
exist : 

Distemper Mixture. — Take cUorate of potash, 2dr. ; Mindererus' 
spirit, loz. ; sweet spirit of nitre, 2dr. ; tincture of henbane, 2dr. ; 
water, 2Joz. Dissolve the potash in the water, and add the other 
ingredients. The dose for a 201b. puppy of six months old is a 
tablespoonful, and it should be given in some additional water. 
In oases of fits, when the head seems affected and there is partial 
blindness, or twitchings of the limbs, etc. , add the following to the 
Distemper Mixture, and do not alter the dose : Tincture of 
aconite, 18 drops ; solution of strychnia (British Pharmacopoeia), 
18 drops. Gradually increase the dose of these two drugs in the 
mixture, until in a week three times the above dose is ^ven. 

No remedy will do away with the necessity for unremitting care 
and attention on the part of the attendant — in fact, good, sensible 
management and nursing are more than half the battle. The 
patient should be in a warm, dry, and well-ventilated place where 
plenty of fresh air is admitted without draught. A bed of hay is 
very suitable under these circumstances, as it is warm and soft and 
easily changed without disturbing the patient much, rest being 
very essential. The most scrupulous cleanliness is of the utmost 
importance, and must be strictly attended to ; all discharges should 
be at once removed, and the extremities and any sores or eruptions 
on the body, belly, or thighs should be lightly sponged with warm 
water containing a little Condy's Fluid or other disinfectant. The 

80 DI8EASS8 or DOGS. 

place where the dog is lodged should also be kept sweet by the use 
of disinfectants. 

The water given to drink should be first boiled and allowed to get 
cold ; the diet mnst be light and nourishing, and the dog drenched 
with liquid food If he refuse to eat. Well boiled oatmeal and milk, 
or strong beef-tea, or, if the dog be purged, boiled wheaten flour ot 
arrowroot, with milk and port wine, form a suitable diet, as it is first 
of aU important to keep up the patient's strength. Much solid 
food is not advisable, and, indeed, a distemper patient will seldom 
take it. I have found great benefit from giving pups at short 
intervaU small quantities of chopped up raw lean meat, beef or 
mutton, and when very low indeed a little weak brandy and water, 
followed by the meat ; or Brand's solid Extract of Meat given as a 
piU, where the appetite is gone and there is great weakness, will 
rouse the patient and induce him to take more food, by which his 
strength is kept up. Tonics may also be given alternately vrith 
the Distemper Mixture. 

Simple Tonic. — Disulphate of quinine, I2gr. ; tincture of gentian 
and syrup of orange, each 6dr. ; diluted sulphuric acid, 10 drops ; 
mixed, and a teaspoonful given to 201b. pups. Boston's syrup is a 
good tonic after distemper (10 to 60 drops twice a day, in water, 
after food). 

Even after the mora violent symptoms have abated and the disease 
appears to have passed off, it is still necessary to use caution. Many 
a valuable dog has been lost by taking him out to exercise too soon 
after distemper, a very slight exertion sometimes causing a relapse, 
which in many cases proves fatal, the whole strength of the dog 
having been wasted in contending with the first attack. The 
owner, therefore, must not be in a hurry, patience and nourishing 
diet, with the daily use of the Totiic Pills, which should now be had 
recourse to, will bring their own reward. The increase in the food 
should be gradual, and, in addition to the Tonic Pills, cod-liver oil 
is of great benefit ia restoring the dog to health and strength ; but 
any special weakness inherited from distemper mnst be specially 
dealt with. 

HVSZfSJSSS.—See Ybbtioo. 

DOCKING.— Though by no stretch of the imagination this can 
be called a disease, yet it not infrequently happens that puppies suffer 
not a little from the operation being clmnsily performed. In the 
majority of cases docking is quite unnecessary and is merely dona 
in deference to the dictates of a stupid Fashion. A very common 
impression prevails that the only correct way of docking a dog is 


by biting off the tail. Nothing could be more erroneous or more 
disgusting. If docking is performed at aU, it should be by meams 
of a pair of sharp scissors, and within a week or a little mora of the 
birth of the pups. 

DROFST. — This is an unnatural accumulation of water la 
different parts of the body, as in water on the brain, dropsy of the 
chest, dropsy of the skin, and dropsy of the belly ; and it is the last- 
named to which the dog is most liable. Dropsy is generally, if not 
always, the result of some other debilitating disease, and especially 
of inflammatory disorders ; but it may also be brought on by un- 
suitable diet, or by the abuse of drastic purgatives. With the develop- 
ment of shows a new danger has sprung up, as dogs are too often 
kept on their benches to the suppression of the discharge of the 
excretions, which is a recognised cause of inducing dropsy. Dropsy 
of the belly need not in the bitch be mistaken for pregnancy, for in 
the latter the teats enlarge with the belly, which is altogether 
firmer, and does not droop until just before whelping, whUe the 
puppies can be felt through the abdominal walla. In dropsy 
the belly is more pendulous and baggy, the back is arched, and the 
water moves readily under pressure ; the dropsical animal, too, is 
generally poor in flesh and harsh in coat. The medicines principally 
employed ia dropsy are iodine, iron, and other mineral tonics, with 
digitalis and diuretics ; 5 to 15 drops of benzoate of ammonium, 
or 1 to 3 drops of oil of jumper, with 5 to 20 drops of tincture of nux 
vomica, in water, three times a day, are also useful in treating the 
disease which, however, is always best left to a veterinary surgeon. 

DTSENTEBiT is a serious disease. It is due to inflammation 
of the mucous membrane of the bowel, and is accompanied by 
ulceration and hsemorrhage (bleeding). The most fruitful causes are 
obstinate diarrhoea, the action of irritant poisons, the inhalation of foul 
air, and in hot climates the result of excessive heat and eating putrid 
meat. The primaiy symptoms are, hot nose and dry mouth, loss of 
appetite, usually more or less pain, as shown by restlessness and 
crying out on pressure being applied. At this stage, constipation and 
sickness are often present. Afterwards the bowels operate and the 
evacuations are most disagreeable, and tinged with blood ; or blood 
may be passed alone. If ulceration has taken place, pus (matter) may 
also be voided, the animal rapidly sinks, and the faeces and other 
discharge oome away involuntarily. 

The first object in treating these cases should be to aUay the 
pain when present. This can be accomplished by administering 10 
to 60 drops of tincture of opium. To check the diarrhoea give 


2 drops of creasotum, made into a pill with crnmbs of bread, 
tbree times a day; or Sgr. to 15gr. of tannic acid with Igr. of 
powdered opium twice a day. Into the rectum should be injected 
from 2gr. to Sgr. of sulphate of copper with 15 to 60 drops of 
tincture of opium, in 4oz. of water. If this does not check the 
dysentery, then give Jgr. to igr. of sulphate of copper. Increasing 
to Igr., with Jgr. to Igr. of powdered opium. 

'The food should consist of beef-tea, with the white of egg, and 
weak milk and water thickened with arrowroot. The animal must 
be kept warm, and the anus and hair about the part thoroughly 
cleansed, while the sanitary arrangements must be as perfect as 



EABi, CAITEEB OF.— This disease is usually divided into 
" internal canker " and " external canker." Internal canker consists 
of inflammation of the lining membrane of the passage to the 
ear, which runs on to ulceration and sup^- .:-ation ; when of long 
standing a blackish offensive discharge takes place and accumulates 
in the passage, and on examination the inte'ior of the ear will be 
found to be red and inflamed. The dog ihus suffering may be 
observed frequently scratching hia ear with his paw, holding iiia head 
on one side and giving it a violent shake, as though to empty some- 
thing out of the ear ; and the pain and irritation arising from the 
disease cause him to rub and shake his head constantly and violently, 
whereby the flaps of the ears get bruised, ulcerations form, and the 
tips become obstinately sore. The inflammation existing in the 
interior lining membrane extends itself to the outside through the 
constant shaking and scratching, and external canker is also estab- 
lislied. It is not an uncommon belief that canker of the ear is 
confined to water dogs. This error arises no doubt from the fact 
that water spaniels and others of that class, from theii exposure, 
are most likely to get water lodged in their ears, the shaking and 
pawing to get rid of which frequently sets up the inflammation, 
ending in canker. The tears and scratches received from briars and 
thorns in working close coverts, if not attended to, may also set up 
external canker of the ear. The insinuation of wet and dirt, and 
the accumulation of hardened wax in the ear-passage, are no doubt 
causes, and axe especially likely to produce baneful results where a 


bad system of kennel management co-exists. But in the interests 
of my canine friends I would ask whether there is not another fi-equent 
and needless cause t — whether men do not often produce it who, 
instead of correcting their dogs by the legitimate means of the 
voice and the whip, resort to the cruel practice of " lugging?" 

External canker often exists as a consec[uence of inflamma- 
tion, ulceration, or suppuration of the internal passage. There is 
a kind of mangy affection of the ears which is altogether different, 
but which may easily be confounded with it; in these cases the 
edges of the ears become dry, hot, and scaly, and the hair faUs off, 
but this is in many cases really mange, and must be so treated. 
There are cases where the whole of the external ear becomes swoUen 
and tender, and tie flap thickened and filled with fluid between 
the skin and the cartilage gristle. In such cases it is not unusual to 
lance them and press out the matter formed ; but a far more successful 
method is to insert a tape seton iu the inside of the ear from above 
downwards to the flap. The tape should be moved now and again 
to allow the fluid to escape, and the ear should be frequently washed 
with warm water so that the openings made by the eeton do not 
become blocked. When the discharge ceases, the tape can be cut out, 
and the wounds dressed night and morning with boracic acid ointment 
or white naphthol ointment. 

In the general treatment of canker of the ear the first thing is to 
remove any exciting cause that may exist, such as dirt or hardened 
wax, and this can be best done by carefully washing, and if need be, 
syringing the ears with lukewarm water ; and, in the case of 
hardened wax, pouring in a few drops of almond or olive oil. The 
bathing ^vill in itself assuage the paia and irritation, and all the 
parts that can be got at should be afterwards carefully dried with a 
soft cloth. There are many applications recommended for canker of 
the ear, and endless nostrums advertised to cure it in a single day ; 
all, or nearly all, are preparations of lead, zinc, or silver. 

Silver and Zins Lotions. — A solution of nitrate of silver is recom- 
mended by many ; the strength should be from 4gr. to 6gr. of the 
nitrate of silver to loz. of water. Or a sulphate of zinc lotion may 
be made as follows : Take sulphate of zinc, 12gr. ; wine of opium, 
Idr. ; water sufBcient to make IJoz. of lotion. 

I prefer the following preparation to anything I have tried : 

Lead Liniment. — Take Goulard's Extract of Lead, loz. ; glycerine 
and carbolic acid, Joz. ; finest olive oO, 4Joz. Mix the first two 
named, and add the oil gradually, rubbing together in a mortar. 
The bottle must be well shaken before the Uniment is used. 

All of these preparations are used in a similar manner — namely, by 
placing the dog's head flat on a form, or on the knee of the person 


who holds him, and then pourmg a Kttle into the ear-passage, 
holding the dog in the same position for a niinute or two, until the 
liquid finds its way into the seat of the disease. The preparation 
should also be applied freely to aU the external sores. If there he no 
dark and offensive discharge from the ear, the carbolic acid and 
glycerine may be omitted from the lead Uniment ; and I may here 
observe that I mean that article to be of the strength ordered in the 
British Pharmacopoeia, viz., 1 part pure carbolic acid in 5 parts pure 

Another treatment for internal canker is to syringe the ear once 
a day, or night and morning, according to the severity of the case, 
with 1 part of spirit of wine and 20 parts of lukewarm water. 
AUow the dog to shake his head afterwards to remove the superfluous 
fluid, then dry the ear thoroughly with cotton-wool, roUed upon the 
end of a probe or pointed stick. Several pieces of wool will be 
necessary. When the ear is perfectly diy, introduce into the cavity 
finely powdered boraoic acid, seeing that it reaches the bottom. In 
some cases that do not yield to this treatment, powdered iodoform 
can be used in place of the boracic acid. If any of the sores outside 
look "angry," scrape with a knife a little bluestone into fine 
powder and dust them with it ; or, after bathing and di-ying nicely, 
touch them with a point of lunar caustic. It will be of advantage, 
in treating canker of the ear, to give the dog a purgative, and iu 
many severe and stubborn cases the administration of the Fever 
Mixture for a few days after the purgative wiU be of great benefit. 
The diet must be light, and consist partly of boiled green vege- 

Many of the best writers on dog diseases recommend a cap to be 
worn by the dog in external canker of the ear to prevent the flapping 

and consequent irritation and in- 
jury to the tips of the ear from the 
violent shaking of the head, but 
so far as my experience goes, I am 
of opinion that it does more harm 
than good. But those who wish 
to try a cap (Fig. 11) can readily 
make one with a piece of canvas of 
suflicient length to reach round the 
dog's head, having two pieces of 
tape running through a hem at 
each side lengthwise, wherewith to 
Fig. 11. Ear-Cap fob Injdked Dog. draw the cap tight round the dog's 

neck behind the ears, and again, 
just above the eyes, tying them underneath. 


EAB, FAKASITIC CANKEK OF.-In the summer of 
1891, Mr. A. J. Sewell, M.R.C.V.S., called my attention to a 
parasite he had found in the ear of a dog suffering from canker, and 
he subsequently published a description of it in the Kennel Gazette, 
with drawings accurately representing the creature as I saw it under 
his microscope. Mr. Sewell named the parasite Psoroptes auricularis 
cards, and it was undoubtedly an independent and original discovery 
on his part. The parasite would, however, appear to have been 
previously known, and is not a Psoropt but a Simbiot — two creatures 
it is sufficient for the purpose of this book to say are remarkably 
alike. They differ from the mites of mange in not burrowing or 
tunnelling galleries under the skin, but live in colonies on the sur- 
face, and the skin lining the passage into the ear being thin and 
soft, they, by their bites, cause great irritation, and produce the 
dryish brown discharge which most dog-owners must have observed 
La cases of canker. Mr. Sewell describes these parasites as " running 
about the skin and along the hairs in the ear, at a fairly rapid rate. " 
They do not live on the skin of the body, or even extend their 
wanderings to the flap of the ear. Mr. Sewell's prescription for the 
destruction of these parasites is : Ointment of nitrate of mercury 
(strong citron ointment), Idr. ; oil of sweet almonds, loz. ; mixed — 
to be applied with a camel-hair pencil, ol a few drops poured into 
the ear. The mild citron ointment of the chemist is much the same. 
Whichever is selected, it should be used when freshly made. 

EAK, POLYPUS IMT THE. — Polypi sometimes occur in 
the Uning membrane of the external meatus, and their removal ia 
always best left to the veterinary surgeon. 

EAK, WAX HABBEITZK'G Iir THE.— In this case warm 
water injections are often useful ; afterwards the ear should be care- 
fully dried, the dog's head laid flat on one side, and a little oil of 
sweet almonds poured into the cavity. This should be done daily 
until the wax is softened and discharged. Or the ear may be syringed 
with 1 part spirits of wine and 20 parts lukewarm water. After- 
wards dry it with cotton-wool rolled round a probe or piece of 
pointed stick. 

ECZESIA (Bed BXange). — Eczema differs from mange in being 
non-contagious ; it is constitutional, and is not caused by parasites, 
as is mange proper. It may be general or local, and consists of an 
eruption of minute vesicles ; these discharge an acrid fluid, and 
often coalesce. The skin has a scarlet appearance, often becomes 
wrinkled, and is frequently completely denuded of hair, while there 


6S DisaASEs OT Doea. 

ij9 excessive heat or inflammation. The redness of skin often appeaiB 
suddenly and unexpectedly, and when the dog is supposed to be welL 
The causes are various, and my experience is that all dogs are alike 
liable to it, although HUl and other writers say that sporting dogs 
are particularly subject to it. It may arise from chafing, cold and 
wet, irritation due to parasites, or the use of unsuitable applica- 
tions to the skin. By far the greater number of cases are, however, 
referable to constitutional disturbances — indigestion, and disorders of 
the liver, bowels, kidneys, etc. In such cases the elements of the 
food are not assimilated, the whole internal system suffers, and 
Nature uses the skin to throw off the objectionable matter ; hence 
the eruptions which follow. 

Whatever, then, causes disorder of the stomach, Uver, or bowels, 
may produce these eczematous forms of skin disease. Improper and 
overfeeding are common causes, but I believe the commonest of all 
to be worms. These parasites disturb the functional organs and 
prevent their assimilation of the food. 

To produce a healthier state of the blood, the following mixture 
may be given with advantage ; Epsom salts, loz. ; liquor arseni- 
calis, Idr. ; tincture of ginger, 2dr. ; water to 6oz. Dose, a dessert- 
spoonful to a tablespoonful night and morning after food. To allay 
the irritation, dress the animal all over with olive oil, 1 pint ; and oU 
of tar, 2oz. ; while, if the disease is obstinate, add 4oz. of sulphur. 
Wash off and repeat if necessary at the end of a week. 

Bitches during, or just after the constitutional excitement of 
oestrum, or heat, often suffer from eczema. There may be an 
inherited tendency to the disease, but that Is simply a likeness in 
constitution. Eczema is not, properly speaking, an hereditary 
disease ; and in almost every case it may be traced to one of the 
direct causes named. See BLOTCH. 

ENTEBITIS.— <$ee Bowkls, Inflammation or. 

Z!FZL!EPSY, — Most of our domestic animals are subject to 
this, and among stock owners in general it Is known as the " falling 
sickness." Dogs are peculiarly liable to it. Epilepsy is charac- 
terised by sudden loss of sensation, a violent convulsive action of 
the muscles of both the body and limbs, champing of the jaws, 
and emission of froth from the mouth. As the tongue is apt to get 
cut by the involuntary action of the jaws, not infrequently the 
froth gets tinged with blood ; this adds to the fears of those ignorant 
of the nature of the disease, and from unfounded alarm that the 
dog may be mad many a poor animal is destroyed. See ElTS. 


ERTTHEXSA. — Dogs occasionally become the subject of thii 
disease, which is superficial inflammation of the skin. Usually it 
is not, however, a serious matter, though at times very obstinate. 
The skin peels, and leaves the part tender and sore. The mouth is 
frequently the seat of the disease (boarhounds are particularly liable), 
and the skin finally becomes wrinkled. A purgative should be ad- 
ministered and the parts bathed with a saturated solution of boracic 
acid lotion (it is non-poisonous) ; or a little bran water is useful, and 
to this may be added a pinch of bicarbonate of soda. 

ETEBALIi, FROTKUSION OF.— It sometimes occurs in 
fighting that the eyeball is forced out of its socket, and the Ud, 
contracting, prevents its return. A veterinary surgeon should at 
once be sent for, and iu the meantime the eye should be bathed with 
lukewarm water ; this will tend to keep the muscles relaxed, and 
facilitate the returning of the eyebaU. 

ETE, DISEASES OF. — Accidents to the eye are not un- 
common, such as scratches by a cat, or injuries from a blow or in 
fighting. In such cases the first thing to do is to bathe the injured 
organ with warm water for ha,lf-an-hour or so to reduce the swelling 
and inflammation which follow. A good eye lotion ia made with : 
Boracic acid, Ise. ; distilled water, to eoz. If the injury is great, a 
veterinary surgeon should be allowed to deal with it, but otherwise 
the constant application of Idr. of Goulard's Extract of Lead, Joz. 
of wine of opium, and J pint of distilled water, two or three times 
a day, wUl probably be sufficient. See Amaueosis, CatAKAOT, 
Ophthalmia, Haw, Enlargement or, and Ikitis. 

Cloudiness and White Specks. — These follow inflammation, 
and seem to be dependent also on general health. Ulcers also 
sometimes form and leave a round whitish spot. This should be 
treated by applying with a feather or camel-hair pencil a solution 
of nitrate of silver, 3gr. to 6gr. dissolved in loz. of distilled water, 
twice a day. Another useful preparation is composed of yeUow oxide 
of mercury, Igr. ; lard or vaseline, Idr. ; a small piece of the 
ointment should be iuserted in the eye night and morning. Also 
give the Tonic Pills. 

ETEILASHES, TUSIVED IN.— This occasionally occurs, 
and the eyelash may grow right across the pupil, luterfering alike 
with the dog's comfort and his vision. In ordinary caaes simply 
snipping with the scissors is effectual ; but ta some instances 
excision and cauterisation of the part are necessary. 

W 8 


ETEiiiDS, inv:eb>szoit of the LOWEB Ills OF. 

— When this is met with in dogs, it causes serious trouble, ophthal- 
mia, etc. An operation is the only means of cure. A piece of skin is 
removed helow the eye, and a small muscle, which is responsible for 
the turning in of the eye, is severed. The small wound should not 
be sutured, but allowed to heal under a scab, which will also help to 
pull the eyelid outwards and slightly downwards, relieving the con- 
dition naturally. This operation should be performed by a veterinary 
surgeon, as in nnslulful hands serious mischief might arise. 


FA3JSE <rOII?T. — Where a Umb is improperly set, or the 
animal is in an unhealthy condition, false joint is found. It is the 
non-union of the bone by the usual osseous deposits. Instead of this 
there is a fibrous connection, and the union of the bones, or portion 
of them, is much as if they had been united by a piece of india- 
rubber ; the two pieces of bone can be readily moved, and the 
limb cannot support any weight. An operation is often attempted 
to set up inflammation of the part, and induce osseous or bony 
deposits, but from my experience, it is not very successful. 

FATNESS, EXCESSIVE.— A certain amount of fat is not 
only a sign of health, but also desirable, as it is the store of fuel that 
Nature lays up to meet future exigencies ; but an excess of fat 
constitutes a morbid and diseased state of the body. Some dogs are 
prone to put on fat even when on a comparatively meagre diet, and 
certain breeds — pugs and most varieties of spaniels — more than others. 
The causes are confinement and want of exercise, together with 
an over-abundance of food, or food of a quality too rich in fat- 
producing materials. 

A common effect of excessive fat is to set up skin disease, with 
discharge therefrom, which is Nature's means of ridding the system 
of the superfluous matter. Or the fat accumulates round vital organs, 
interfering with the animal's respiration, making the breathing 
laboured, wheezy, and asthmatical, painful to the suflerer, whi(£ 
blows and pants on the slightest extra exertion, and most dis- 
tressing to the owner. In bitches not allowed to breed, fat ac- 
cumulates round the kidneys and ovaries ; the heart also becomes 
surrounded with fat, and what is called fatty infiltration or fatty 
degeneration ensues, which may cause sudden death. 

The treatment consists in altering the diet. Give gradually 
poorer food, and less of it, and at the same time by degrees increasa 


the exercise, so that the consumption of fat may for the time being 
exceed the supply in the food. In some cases, however, the pre- 
dispesition or acquired habit of body is too strong for these 
measures, in which ease a brisk pxirgative may be given twice a 
week, and, in addition, a dog 201b. weight may have 2gr. of iodide 
of potassium twice a day, in water, just after meals. Bitches 
should occasionally be allewed to breed and to rear at least one 
or two puppies. 


Heart, Fatty Degeneration op. 

FEET, SOBiE, — Dogs that travel much on hard, dry roads, as 
Dalmatians often do, and sporting dogs hunting over, rough ground, 
short stubble, or stumpy heather, are apt to get the spongy, elastic 
pads of the feet contused and worn thin. The treatment depends 
»n the extent of the injury. If merely tender, and slightly inflamed, 
bathe with cold water, and afterwards apply freely the following : 

Lotion for Sore Feet. — Tincture of arnica and tincture of matioo 
of each Joz. ; tincture of opium, loz. ; acetic acid, Joz. ; water, 
enough to fill a wine-bottle. 

Another good plan is to st«ep the feet for ten minutes night and 
morning, in Jeyes' Fluid (1 part of Jeyes' to 40 parts of water), or in 
a saturated solution of boracic acid. 

If the case is severe, first apply a poultice of half bran and half 
boiled turnips. Sometimes the inflammation is great, and the feet 
become swollen, hot, and painful, so that the dog cannot stand, and 
the general health suffers. Feverishness and loss of appetite reduce 
his strength, matter forms in the feet, or the soles slough off. In 
such cases linseed meal should be added to the other ingredients of 
the poultice, and a little olive oil poured over its surface. The dog 
should have a mild aperient, a dose of Fever Mixture three or four 
times a day, and be kept on a light diet. It may be necessaiy, for 
the more speedy relief of the dog, to let the matter out with the 
lancet, and in all respects these cases should be treated as ulcers. 
Dogs long confined should not be at once run much on hard roads or 
worked on rough ground, but their feet gradually hardened by daily 
Increased exercise. 

FXSTUZiA IBT A1TXT3. — This is not an uncommon disease in 
pampered, overfed dogs. Usually it presents itself as an opening in 
the side of the anus, and extends inwards up to the gut, when, of 
course, it can be seen ; but in other cases there is no externa] open 
Ing. The canees are constipation, when the hardened fseces abrade 
the surface in tibeir sxpuleion; or neglected piles, resulting is 

70 DiMCASsa OT Doaa. 

tiloeration ; or it may arise from a wound inflicted on tlie part. The 
gymptoms of internaJ fistula axe : the dog drags lilmself along the 
ground — though that is also done when worms exist in the intes- 
tines — and the voided matter is very offensive, and often covered or 
marked with blood and matter. The treatment should be left to 
the veterinary surgeon, who will lay the sinus open and apply 
remedies to set up healthy action and close it up. 

FXTS. — These are of common occurrence, especially in puppies. 
Fortunately those that are of a dangerous and fatal character are 
the rarest. They often cause needless alarm ; but the dog suffering 
from a fit of whatever land is not an object to be frightened at, he is 
rather to be commiserated with and helped, and this requires freedom 
from the common feai that a dog in a fit is mad, for which there is 
no just reason. Fits are of many kinds — apoplectic, distemper, 
epileptic, teething, suckling, and those due to worms. Other causes 
of excitement are known to produce fits. 

Apoplectic Fits are caused by pressure on the brain from dis- 
tended blood-vessels or effusion of blood. The subjects of attack are 
generally those dogs that are kept in idleness and over-fed, and the 
attack may be the immediate result of the animal over-loading the 
stomach with food difficult of digestion. The symptoms are loud, 
laboured breathing ; the dog lies motionless on its side in a state of 
insensibility — there is no frothing at the mouth or champing of the 
jaws, but the eyes are fixed and often bloodshot. Such cases are 
usually fatal, and death is frequently tastantaneous. Prompt bleed- 
ing is the most likely means of saving the patient; and then, as 
soon as sufficiently recovered, a strong purge should be given, or 
clysters administered. Should these means prove successful, it will 
be necessary to use extreme care to prevent a recurrence of the fit. 
The dog's diet must be carefully regulated, sufficient healthful 
exercise allowed, or compelled, if need be, and occasional doses of 
oooling medicine given. Apoplexy in the dog is not often seen 
in practice. 

Distemper Fits are caused by congestion or inflammation of the 
brain, and often prove fataJ. 

Epileptic Fits are of very common occurrence, and generally 
happen when the dog is at exercise — sometimes in the case of pointers 
they are seized when on the point, doubtless from the undue excite- 
ment produced. When the dog is attacked, he is first observed to 
tremble on his legs, and on trying to run on he staggers and falls 
down on his side, frequently uttering a low moan. Struggling to 

riTS— rLATULlSKCT. 71 

his feet he attempts to move, only to repeat the fall, when he Ilea 
stupefied and insensible. The legs and the whole muscular system 
are violently convulsed, the dog froths at the mouth, the head is 
violently moved, often knocked against the ground, the jaws are 
champed together, and sometimes the tongue gets lacerated between 
the teeth, and the froth from hia mouth becomes tinged with blood ; 
the breathing during the fit is laboured and kregular. The fit 
generally lasts several minutes. When the convulsions have sub- 
sided, the dog raises his head, opens his eyes with a look of surprise, 
and very shortly runs about as if nothing had happened. 

The treatment during an epileptic fit is to gently carry the dog to 
a dry place where there is some soft material so that he cannot 
hurt himself in his struggles. As soon after as possible give him a 
dose of the Anti-spasmodic Drops, and leave him quiet in a warm, 
comfortable kenneL Endeavour to ascertain the cause of the fit. 
If from over-feeding, reduce the diet and give gentle exercise, and, if 
need be, repeated doses of cooling medicine. 3gr. of bromide of 
potash for a 201b. dog twice a day in water for a week wiU prove 
beneficial to dogs predisposed to epilepsy. 

Suckling Fits are produced by exhaustion consequent on the 
bitch having too many pups left on her. She lies or falls down, 
breathing heavily, becomes insensible, and is frequently much con- 
vulsed. Remove all the pups but one or two, let the mother have 
a generous diet, and if much reduced give the Concentrated Tonic 
Mixture for a few weeks, or the Tonic Pills. 

TeetMng Fits often occur during the cutting of the first teeth, 
but more frequently when the permanent ones are being irrupted. 
Lancing the gums is sometimes resorted to, but as a rule a little 
opening medicine is all that is needed. Convulsions are frequently 
present in these fits, as also in those due to worms. 

Fits due to Worms. — When these parasites are the producing 
cause, that fact may often be ascertained by examining the faeces 
voided during or just after the fit, as some of them wiU probably 
be seen. Or the presence of worms may be determined 1^ the 
symptoms given under that head. 

PLATTJLEITCT is not very common in adult dogs, but ofteuer 
met with in pappies. It is unmistakable evidence of indigestion. 
For immediate relief the treatment should consist in giving to a 
201b. dog half a teaspoonful of carbonate of magnesia in a little 
milk ; or give a dose of castor oU, and foUow with 5gr. to 15gr. of 
carbonate of bismuth three times a day dry upon the tongu«. For 
permanent cure, correct the indigestion. See Indiobstion. 


PLEAS. — See PAEASiTEa, Extkenal. 
FOXTM'DEB OF THE CHEST.— &e Ks^-kbl Lameness. 
FZbACTUHES.— <See Bones, Broken. 


6ASTKITIS.— 5(!i? Stomach, Inflammation op. 

OASTKO-En'TEHITIS. — A highly contagious disease that 
first made ita appearance here in 1 899, when it assumed an epidemic 
form. So many and sudden were the deaths that for a while poison was 
suspected. Puzzling, too, were the symptoms, as many of these were 
common to ordinary Crastritis^-inability to retain food, vomiting, 
diarrhoea, nlcers at the back of the throat, foetid breath, staring 
coat, &c. — and suspects were treated for that disease. It was not until 
post-mortems were made that the true state of affairs was revealed. 
Any dog suspected of the disease should be at once isolated from 
kennel companions, and kept warm and quiet nntil a veterinary 
surgeon can be Bummoned^ Usually, however, death puts an end to 
the sufferer before any treatment can be adopted. 5gr. to 20gr. of 
carbonate of bismuth, with 3 to 6 drops of diluted hydrocyanic acid 
in water, three times a day, may allay the stomach irritability . These 
should be placed in a bottle and well shaken, A teaspoonful of 
Brand's Beef Jelly every hour and a half should be tried. Usually 
there is an entire loss of appetite and rapid wasting. The disease is 
thought to be of microbio origin. 

GATHERINGS.— 5i3e Abscess and Boils. 

GLASS EXE See Amaitkosis. 

GLOSSITIS, — See Tongue, Inflammation of. 

GOITRE, or BROWCHOCELE.— This term is applied to a 
swelling or lump that appears on the front part of the neck, known 
as the thyroid gland. It is soft and elastic to the touch, and appears 
to give no pain except when it increases to such a size as to interfere 
with the breathing. It is especially a disease of old dogs, although 
it occurs in ill-fed and scrofulous puppies. The treatment consists 
in applying the following ointment daily till the swelling disappears : 
iodide of potassium, Idr. ; lard, 7dr. ; mix. Cod-liver oil— a teaspoonful 
to a 201b. dog daily for a month or two ; or iodide of potassium, in 
doses of 2gr. in water, and in addition a dose of Chemical Food three 
times a day, are also beneficial. If abscesses form they must be 
lancpd. Dogs suffering from goitre should be extra well fed. 

GUTTA SERENA See Amaurosis. 


E^SMATUBIA (Bloody Uriae).— This condition ia met 
with in doga, and is the result of calculi situated in the bladder, 
kidneys, or urethra. These foreign bodies cause irritation and 
inflammation, and also injure the mucous membrane, producing 
abrasions and superiieial bleeding, the blood being passed with the 
urine. A blow across the back may also cause it. Upon pressing 
the dog's loins pain is evinced, and there is also a certain amount 
of irritation caused by passing the urine. Blood is sometimes mixed 
vfiih the latter, or it may be passed independently of it. Give 10 to 
60 drops of liquid extract of ergot every four hours, and if the 
urinary passage is the seat of the injui-y, inject a weak solution of 
Condy's Fluid. The food should consist for a time of Bovril or 
beef-tea, with egg and milk to drink. Under no circumstances 
administer a diuretic. 

H^iMOSBrHOIDS.— &e Piles. 

HARVEST BUGS.— /See Parasites, Exteenal. 

HAW, ENXiAHGBMENT OP.- The haw, or third eyelid, 
as it is sometimes called, is a fold of membrane situated at the 
inner comer of the eye, and capable of expansion, and is used to 
sweep across the globe of the eye to cleanse it from flies, dirt, or 
other foreign bodies that have been blown in. This membrane, 
from constitutional causes, blows, or irritation due to extraneous 
matter lodged in the eye, sometimes becomes inflamed and enlarged, 
interfering with the sight and preventing the eyelids from closing. 

The treatment consists in applying astringent lotions, lunar caustic, 
or in cutting o£E the excrescent growth, according to the oiroumstancea 
of the case. 

perhaps the most frequent form of heart disease found in the dog ; it 
is. however, seldom diagnosed during life. 

The cause may arise from a general malnutrition of the system, 
or from senile decay (decay due to old age). The organ is not 
always wholly involved. When only a part is affected, it is due 
to some obstruction causing local malnutrition. The symptoms 
during life are not very pronounced, though the animal may show 
unusual fatigue upon slight exertion, and the pulse is irregular. 

HEART, RUPTURE OP.— This has been noted bj some 
^rriters, but the cases quoted arc few, 

74 DiaxABBfl or docm. 

fatal form of heart disease. The pulse is very perceptibly irregular 
and feeble. Upon post-mortem examination the valves will be 
found thickened, and may present upon their surfaces granulations, 
which feel under the finger like minute particles of sand. Treat- 
ment is of no avail ; but to prevent sudden death, all undue excite- 
ment should be avoided. 

HEAT, PERIOD OT.—See CEstrum. 

HEPATITIS (Inflammation of the Liver). — <%< 

HEXtlTIA, XTMBILICAL.— <$ee Navel Hernia. 

HICCOUGH arises from indigestion, and often annoys house 
pets that are given improper food, such as sweets, etc. A wineglass- 
ful of lime water ia a tumblerful of milk to drink, and for a 201b. 
dog lOgr. of bicarbonate of soda, and 10 drops of sal volatile in a 
tablespoonfnl of milk, will usually prove effeotuaL 

HOBIE SICEITESS.— 'See Nostomania. 

HUSK. — Dogs are subject to a dry, husky cough, associated with 
derangement of the stomach, and worms are often the originating 
cause. The symptoms are dry, hot nose, disagreeable breath, 
inflamed eye, aiid increased discharge from nose, with more or less 
general fever ; the dog after coughing retches, bringing up portions 
of frothy mucua. The treatment consists in keeping the dog free 
from damp and cold, feeding on warm, easily digested food, and the 
administration of a dose of salad oil every third morning, and the 
foUovnng two sets of pUls, two a day of each, given alternately: 

Pills for Husky Cough. — Powdered opium, 6gr. ; tartarised 
antimony, Igr. ; compound squill pill, Idr. ; mix and divide into 
twenty-four piUs, and give one to a 201b. dog twice a day. 

Tome Stomachic Pills. — Pure sulphate of iron, 12gr. ; dried 
bicarbonate of soda, 24gr. ; extract of camomile, 24gr. ; mix and 
divide into twelve pills. One of these is a dose for a 201b. dog. 
Not iufrequently worms in the stomach will cause husk ; if so, a dose 
of areca-nut should be given, or a full dose of ipecacuanha wme to 
cause vomiting. 

HTDBtOCEPHALXTS.— iSee Brain, Watbk on the. 
STDBOPHOBIA.— <^ee Rabies. 



INDIGESTION (DyapepBia).— In this diBease the food 
taken into the stomach is not digested or made fit for the nourish- 
ment of the body, showing that the stomach, from some cause or 
other, has altogether or partially lost its power of performing its most 
important office. This state of things is brought about in various 
ways, such as by want of exercise, improper food, or the giving of 
food irregularly. An over-plentiful meal after a too prolonged fast 
will bring it on ; but the c^use or causes must be of some standing 
to produce a serious attack. The symptoms of indigestion are a 
vitiated appetite, the dog turning up his nose at wholesome food, or 
eating it mincingly and slobbering it about, and giving a preference 
to filth and garbage. Flatulence is often an accompaniment of 
indigestion. There is generally considerable thirst, and the disorder 
is often attended with vomiting. When of long standing, the gums 
become inflamed (they should be bathed frequently with a weak 
solution of Condy's Fluid) and the breath is foul and offensive. 

Indigestion is the cause of many other forms of disease, which 
surely f oUow neglected cases — derangement of the bowels is almost 
inseparable from it. Attacks of diarrhoea occur, sometimes alternat- 
ing with fits of constipation ; or confirmed constipation may exist. 
Sometimes the dog becomes excessively fat, and suffers from asthma 
and asthmatic cough. As a secondary symptom skin disease, in one 
form or other, often occurs. During the attack the dog's temper is 
generally fitful and snappish. In treating for indigestion the most 
important thing is to remove the probable cause or causes. Give a 
sufficiency only of plain, wholesome food, and keep withia the dog's 
reach a supply of clean, fresh water. Remedies must be administeied 
according to existing circumstances — diarrhoea, for instance, being 
treated as recommended under that head. The main object, 
however, must not be lost sight of — namely, to give tone to the 
stomach and bring that organ back to a proper discharge of its 
functions. To this end give to a 20lb. dog a compound rhubarb pill 
every night for a week. When the bowels have been freely acted 
upon, give the following twice a day until health is restored : 

Stomachic Bolus. — Take powdered rhubarb, Iscr. ; powdered ginger, 
lacr. J extract of gentian, 4ser. Mix, and divide into twenty-four 
pills. Dose for a 201b. dog, one twice a day. 

If there is much flatulence, give dry upon the tongue, 5gr. to 16gr. 
of carbonate of bismuth, three times a day ; or bicarbonate of soda 
6gr. to 30gr. ; tincture of nux vomica 5 to 20 drops ; tincture of 
ginger 10 to 60 drops in water twice a day. Add • little lime water 

78 DIBCASK9 or soos. 

to the milk that is giyen to drink. By treating the patient thus and 
paying strict attention to his dietary and exercise, the disease will 
soon yield. 


Inflammation op. 

XNFLUEITZA. — This is an epidemic resembling common cold, 
bat more severe in its effects, and contagions. The cansea are 
supposed to be atmospheric cold, and damp weather in spring and 
autumn, which are the usual seasons of its appearance. 

The treatment should be similar to that recommended under COLb. 
The dog will however require still gi-eater care exeicised in keeping 
him warm and in a weU-ventilated place, as well as in being supported 
with easily-digested food, such as strong broth, beef-tea, boiled 
milk, bread, etc. In the early stages, Hoffman's anodyne or 
compound spirit of snlphuric ether, given in milk three times a 
day, is generally beneficial. Dose for a 201b. dog, 15 drops. Any 
discharge from the nose should be encouraged by warm fomentations 
and making the dog inhale the vapour from vinegar of squills 
sprinkled on a hot, wet sponge or cloth. If the throat is swollen 
and sore, slightly blister with vinegar and mustard. In con- 
valescence give cod liver oU and syrup of iodide of iron. 

XITT'D'SS'D'SCEFTION. — See Bowels, Obstetjction of. 

INVEBSIOXr OP THE UTERUS.— 5e« Uterus, Inver- 
sion OF. 





sometimes seen in dogs. The iris is the membrane that gives the 
colour to the eye, in the centre of which is the pupil. The disease 
is usually the result of deep-seated inflammation, or it is caused by 
direct violence. The symptoms are contraction of the pupil (which 
does not possess the same power as usual of contracting and dilating 
to regulate the amount of light to be admitted) tears flow over the 
lid, the light is avoided, and the eye is blood-shot. If the inflamma- 
tion increases, the usual termination of prolonged inflammation 
takes place — namely, suppuration (the formation of matter), and the 
loss of sight is complete. 
1^9 sidopting ^eatmect, t^e first step ia to place thei dog is a 


darkened kennel, to apply hot fomentations continually to the 
eye, and to introduce sulphate of atropine into the organ. Discs of 
sulphate of atropine can be obtained at the chemist's, with full 
instructions for their use. 

I'LAMMATION OF THE LIVER (Hepatitis).— To be 
strictly accurate these should be treated as distinct diseases ; but to 
the ordinary dog-owner the division would be of little or no use, 
the causes and general treatment being alike. Inflammation of 
the liver exists in two forms — the acute and the chronic. The 
former is the rarer, and makes its appearance more suddenly ; the 
latter often occurs as a sequel of the acute. The causes of the 
disease are various, but in most cases they are traceable to im- 
proper feeding, combined with want of exercise, which accounts 
for the number of such cases in house and pet dogs. In sport- 
ing dogs it is often brought on by continued exposure to wet, 
immersion in water during cold, inclement weather, lodgment in 
damp kennels, and by over-fatigue. One very common cause is the 
repeated resort to powerful emetics, which many people use as if 
they possessed a charm over dog diseases. I believe an occasional 
cause of liver complaint may be found in a too forcing system of 
training adopted by some greyhound trainers and others. On the 
whole, however, improper feeding must be credited with the greatest 
share in the evil. 

The liver in a healthy state secretes a yeUow fluid, called the gall ; 
this is collected in the gall-bladder, and is intended to mix with the 
chyle and complete the work of digestion. When obstruction of 
the gaU-bladder takes place, the gall is diverted from its natural 
purpose, becomes reabsorbed by the blood-vessels, and so enters the 
general system, giving a bright saffron colour to various parts, 
notably to the eyes, lips, inside of the ears, inside *f the arms 
and thighs, and in some cases to the whole skin ; hence the name 
of "The Yellows." 

Jaundice is of very frequent occurrence, and, as has been before 
observed, often exists as a complication of distemper; and when 
this is the case it is most difficult to manage, on account of the 
already reduced strength of the dog {see Distempbe). The treat- 
ment must to some extent be governed by the circumstances cd 
each case. 

•ft D18BA8K8 OT I>0«». 

The inrariable yellow colour of the parts mentioned aa a symptom 
In thia disease is one which the least careful observer cannot fail to 
notice ; but before this occurs there are other symptoms which should 
not be overlooked. In the earlier stages the dog's appetite fails ; he 
suffers considerable thirst, which increases as the disease progresses ; 
there is fever, with alternate fits of heat and shivering ; vomiting 
may occur, and the matter ejected is generally slimy and of a 
yellowish colour ; the urine is passed in small quantities, and is a 
deep yellow colour ; the bowels are generally constipated, and the 
excrement is of a pale clay colour. In chronic cases the belly is 
enlarged, and flatulence often exists ; while on the right side a 
swelling may be felt. In severe cases the dog rapidly loses flesh 
and soon becomes a mere skeleton ; the coat is rough and staring, 
and often comes off in patches. AU writers I have consulted on 
the subject recommend mercury in the treatment of jaundice, so 
I here give particulars of its dose, and the mode of administering it, 
for the benefit of my readers, although I do not myself use it. 

Mercurial Treatment of Jaundice. — Calomel 2gr. to 4gr., with Igr. 
of opium every six hours, is a not uncommon prescription. Mr. 
Meyrick prescribes the following; "Blue pill 3gr., opium Igr., to 
be given every five or six hours. If diarrhoea be produced by this 
treatment, the quantity of opium must be increased, and the 
mercury, if heceaaary, reduced to 2gr." 

I prefer to use the Compoimd Podophyllin Fillt. If the bowels be 
not freely opened after administering the first pill a dose of salts 
and senna (black draught) should be given : on the other hand, if 
diarrhoea exists it must be checked. In conjunction with the pills 
the following mixture should be tried : 

Mixture for Jaundice. — Take bromide of potassium, Idr. ; taraxa- 
cum (dandelion) juice, 3oz. ; mix, and ^ve a teaspoonful three times 
a day in water or grueL This dose is for a dog about 201b weight. 
Benefit is also derived from the administration of 30gr. to 60gr. of 
sulphate of potassium in water. The dose may be repeated in 
twenty-four hours, but must not be continued long enough to cause 
excessive purging. 

If the attack should occur during distemper, the Distemper Mix- 
ture may be used instead of the above. When, as in chronic in- 
flammation, the liver is enlarged, the Limment for Sprains may be 
well rubbed round the region of the diseased organ, or a strong 
mustard plaster applied. Another method of affording relief is to 
take a piece of flannel, dip it in hot water, wring the water out, pour 
some spirit of turpentine over the material, and apply to the affected 
part. It is very important that the bowels should be freely relieved 
at the outset, and if the metms advised above prove unsuccessful, 


then it would be well to resort to clysters of soap and warm water. 
Throughout the attack the diet is an important matter; it must 
be light and nourishing, and in a sloppy form. Boiled wheaten 
flour, with beef-tea or mutton-broth, make a suitable diet. The dog 
should also be kept warm, dry, and comfortable, and disturbed as 
little as possible. 

JOIXTTS, ENlJABiGED.— AU large joints are not diseased; 
in fact, in selecting pups in the nest big- jointed ones are to be pre- 
ferred. Enlarged joints, from the want of the hard, earthy materials 
in the bone, which makes them yielding, so that they cannot support 
the weight of the body, and consequently give way, producing de- 
formity, are, however, often met with. The cause is generally bad 
food and the lack of good water, fresh air, and sunshine. See 


This is a rheumdtic affection of the forequarters, and particularly of 
the muscles connecting the shoulder-blade with the trunk. It is 
caused by exposure to wet and cold, and generally by the dog being 
kept in damp or draughty kennels. The symptoms are stififness and 
soi'eness of one or both shoulders. This is most noticeable when the 
dog is running down hiU, or when jumping, as of course then 
practically the whole of the weight of the body is on these parts. 
Left to himself, the dog shows an indisposition to move, and ex- 
periences pain if the hand is passed over his shoulders ; indeed, even 
when an attempt is made to touch him, he shrinks from the hand 
with a snarl or anticipatoiy cry of paio. In long-standing cases, 
power of movement of the forequarters is almost lost, and many 
are incurable. 

The treatment most advisable is to give a warm bath, and after 
thoroughly drying, rub the parts well with a liniment composed of 
equal parts spirit of turpentine, spirit of hartshorn, and laudanum. 
If that should fail to give relief, the following should be tried : 

Limment for Rheumatism. — Take Uniment of aconite, 1 part ; 
compound camphor liniment, 2 parts ; mix, and rub into the affected 
parts continuously for half an hour at a time, using considerable 

The rheumatic liniment is an expensive preparation, and it is also 
a powerful poison, so that great care must be used with it. The 


dog's ooat should be ifiped dry after applying it, and it is a4Tlsablo 
that he should -weai a canvaB-faced muzzle. The bowels should bo 
freely acted on, and the Compound Podophyllin PilU will be the 
best aperient. The following mixture should also be given : 

Mixture for Rheumatism. — Take iodide of potassium, Jdr. ; sweet 
spirit of nitre, Joz. ; water, SJoz. Gire one to two dessertspoonfuls 
for a dose twice a day. 

Even more useful than the mixture recommended, is salicylate of 
sodium in lOgr. to 30gr. doses, in water, three times a day. If this 
fail, then try 5gr. to 15gr. of benzoic acid in piU form, twice a day. 

The food should be sloppy and nourishing, and the dog be kepi ia 
a warm, dry place, free from draught. 


This is a disease of a very dangerous nature, but fortunately not 
very often met with in the dog. It is known by the presence of in- 
tense fever, gi-eat pains across the loins, a peculiar straddling gait, 
and the ineffectual or only partially effectual efforts to pass urine, 
the quantity voided being scanty and sometimes mixed with blood. 
The disease may arise from the presence of stone, or it may be caused 
by blows or sprains in the lumbar region ; or, again, it may be the 
result of administering over-doses of turpentine, cantharides, or other 
powerful excitants of the urinary organs. The treatment of such 
oases should properly be handed over to the qualified veterinarian. 
I can only suggest as likely to give relief, continuous bathing of the 
whole surrounding parts with warm water, the application of hot 
poultices to the loins, relieving the bowels by means of clysters, re- 
ducing the attendant fever by daily doses (5gr. for a 201b. dog) of 
Dover's powder, and the constant use of the Fever Mixture, 


LABOTTB, FBSaZATtTBE.— This is occasionally due to 
over-exertion, leaping from a high place, injuries, and the abuse of 
purgatives ; it also occurs as the result of diseased organs. When it 
does occur, the bitch should be placed in a comfortable room, kept 
perfectly quiet, and for some days fed on broth or porridge. By way 
of medicine repeated doses (one every four or five hours) of opium 
should be given if the animal is in pain. See also Partueition. 

LACTEAL TtTMOUBS.— Every dog-owner must know what 
a common thing it is to see a bitch with an enlargement of one of 
bar teats, or the structures adjoining them. Now, not only is such 


rei-y unsightly, but when grown to a considerable size, as it will do, 
it is veiy Uable to iajuiy. 

The immediate cause is the damming up of one of the milk-ducts ; 
the teat is "blind," as it is called in dairy parlance — that is, the 
flow of milk through it is obstructed by some malformation. Far 
oftener, however, the milk itself is the cause ; that is to say, it is not 
drained off sufficiently, when it hardens, acts as a foreign body, and 
BtiU further as an irritant, because of its chemical decomposition. 
The effect of this is that more or less inflammation of the milk-gland 
is produced, a hard lump forms and increases gradually, and, once 
begun, the evil develops (more and more at each returning period 
after cestrum, when pupping has or should have taken place. 

From the numerous questions I have received on the subject, it 
does not appear to be generally known by those who keep dogs 
that some bitches, even if they have been secluded from the dog 
during the period of "heat," will secrete a fluid much resembling 
milk at the time they would have had pups had impregnation been 
allowed, but such is the case. It is therefore the duty of the owner 
to note the time and look out for the evidence of this secretion and 
have it removed by hand, or by one of the many breast-exhausters, 
giving at the same time a Ught diet, with an extra proportion of 
boiled vegetables and a few doses of cooling, aperient medicine. 
Permitting a bitch when in milk to lie on cold bricks or flags, or 
to be exposed in other ways to cold and damp, may also cause 
obstruction of the teat and subsequent tumour ; while blows, 
bruises, and wounds sometimes produce a like result. A not 
uncommon cause of these lacteal tumours is the hurried drying 
up of the milk by artificial means. It is sometimes desirable to 
destroy pups that are the result of a misalliance, but it is abso- 
lutely cruel to deprive the poor mother of aU her progeny. In 
addition to the cruelty, there is always the risk of the flow of milk 
damming up one or more of the teats and producing tumour. 

The measures of prevention against lacteal tumours will, from 
the foregoing remarks, have suggested themselves to the reader. 
Nature has ordained that the bitch should bring forth young at 
least once in twelve months, and, though she permits us to take 
certain liberties with her laws, yet if we go beyond a certain Umit, 
disease follows as a punishment ; even when we interfere with her 
prerogative, it must not be by direct contradiction, but by diverting 
her forces into other channels. When we forbid the bitch to breed, 
we put an embargo on certain functions, and the energy that supplies 
and works these functions we divert by exciting extra secretions of 
the* bowels, kidneys, etc. ; but the safest, because the most natural, 
prevention of disease, is to let the bitch breed. 



When it is desired to " dry " the bitch, that is, to stop the secre- 
tion of milk, it is wrong to give alum and other astringents, and to 
rub brandy, etc., along the mammae. The object is more surely 
obtained gradually, and that without the risk of untoward results, 
by drawing off what milk there is regularly, giving a spare diet, and 
a good purge, following this with 2gr. to 3gr. of iodide of potassium, 
twice a day, and rubbing well with the following liniment ; 

Liniment for Drying Bitches. — Iodide of potassium, 2dr. ; soap 
Uniment and oil of camphor, of each 2oz, 

When a tumour does form, and the bitch is still in milk, draw 
the milk off twice a day, and in any case, give a brisk purge. Keep 
her on a spare, and rather dry diet, and to one of 201b. weight, give 
twice a day 2gr. of iodide of potassium, in about two tablespoonfuls 
of water, immediately after feeding, and apply twice or thrice a day 
the following ointment to the lumps or swelling : 

Ointment for Lacteal Tumours. — Iodide of potassium, Idr. ; 
powdered camphor, Idr. ; strong mercurial ointment, Joz. ; sperma- 
ceti ointment, loz. ; mixed. Hub a little well in with gentle friction. 

If these means do not prove sufficient for the dispersion of the 
swelling, add to the above ointment 2sor. of resubUmed iodine 
dissolved in a little spirit of wine. 

When the swelling has gone on so far unheeded that matter is 
formed, and becomes soft and ripe (which may be told by the 
fluctuating of the enlargement under pressure of the fingers), 
there is nothing for it but the lancet, which should be inserted in 
the soft part, and a cut nmde downwards, to iasm-e perfect drainage. 
The parts must then be frequently bathed, the matter pressed out, 
washed with a solution of Condy's Fluid, and dressed with Turner's 
cerate, while the patient should have a good strong purge. These 
growths are often removed by the knife, and yrhea of long standing 
that is the only course. 

LAMISSf BSS may arise from a cut foot, a thorn, injuty to the 
spine, or to one of the limbs or joints, or from rheumatism. When 
it comes on suddenly, the cause should be at once diligently sought 
for, and the case treated accordingly. See Kbnnbl Lameness. 


lAETJSrX. — This is a common affection caused by cold and also by 
incessant barking ; hence it is \ ery often met with in drovers' dogs, 
and in dogs which aie constantly sent to shows. The dog becomes 
hoarse, and the power to bark articulately is lost. Yard-dogs kept 
constantly on the chain are also common sufferers. For my own 
part I can never imderstand why so many people desire a yard-dog 


that is always straining on his collar, and keeping up a never ending 
noise in trying to get at somebody or another without discrimination ; 
but people do like what they call a "savage" yard-dog, which 
generally means a dog without iateUigence and training. These 
brutes, whilst they frighten timid people, do mora harm than good ; 
they cry "wolf, wolf," until the master gets so used to the false 
alarm that when the thief really does come the barking of the watch- 
dog is unheeded. 

Caution. — The peculiar hoarse and husky bark which is one of 
the symptoms of rabies might be mistaken for the loss of voice 
caused by inflammation of the windpipe, if other and concomitant 
symptoms were not taken into consideration, and the conseq^ucnces 
would be dangerous ; but the two diseases are easily distinguished, 
and to that end I refer the reader to the article on Rabies. 

In treating laryngitis the difficulty in swallowing occasioned by 
the inflammation renders the danger of choking great if it should be 
attempted to drench the dog ; but I find the following electuary in 
this and all cases of sore throat very beneficial : 

Electuary for Sore Throat. — Take of chlorate of potash finely 
powdered, 2dr. ; powdered gum guaiacum, Idr. ; powdered gum 
acacia, Idr. ; oxymel of squills, 5dr. ; and honey, loi. Mix and 
place a teaspoonful well back on the tongue three times a day. 

Large hot linseed-meal poultices, or the spongio-pilin often 
renewed, should be applied to the throat, and kept in position by a 
bandage ; or else it should be bathed with hot water and afterwards 
well rubbed with this liniment : spirit of turpentine and spirit of 
liartshorn, of each loz. ; tincture of cantharides, Joz. ; rape oil, IJoz. 

l.AB.Y3S:^. INPLAMMATIOIir OT.—See Laeymgitis. 

ImSGS, CKOOKED. — There are some breeds, such as the 
Basset- Hound and the Dachshund, in which crooked legs are con- 
sidered desirable and characteristic ; but I think there can be no 
doubt that this now inherited peculiarity originated m rickets. In 
many of the straight-legged breeds, however, we meet with crooked 
legged specimens. Pups of such large, heavy breeds as mastiffs and 
St. Bernards are specially liable to go wrong in their legs, and the 
present craze for forcing young puppies, encouraged by the prizes 
offered at shows, is answerable for the ruin — in this respect — of many 
a promising dog. See Rickets. 

ItlCS.—See Pajrasitbs, Extsshai.. 


IiZy£B,, IITFI^AKMATIOI? OW.-See Jaundice. 


IjOCK-TAW (Tetanus). — This is of very rare occurrence, 
a fact all the more remarkable when we consider how liable the dog 
is to various spasmodic affections. I have never seen a case of it my- 
self, but Blaine describes it, and it is a recognised canine disease. It 
is a form of t«tauus, and under that head Professor J. Woodroflfe Hill 
describes the symptoms : " When the jaws only are affected, the head 
is poked out, the jaws ajre tightly closed, the angles of the mouth are 
drawn back, the mouth is filled with frothy saliva, and the eyes are 
fixed in an unnatural and often hideous position." 

The person who is unfortunate enough to have a dog seized with 
locked jaw should remove the sufferer to a quiet place on a good bed, 
where the light is subdued and the dog will not -be liable to be 
disturbed, and then consult the best veterinary surgeon within reach. 
Even with the most skilful treatment a cm-e is very doubtful ; but as 
a matter of duty and humanity no quack should be permitted to 
experiment, or officious ignorance roughly handle the patient, for 
such would only cause pain without the remotest hope of good 

LOOSENESS OF THE BOWELS.— .See Diarbhcea and 

ItV'SS.'BAGO.—See Rheumatism. 

LUNGS, INFLAMMATION OF (Fnenmonia ; Pleu- 
risy— Inflammation of tlie Investing Membrane of the 
Lungs, and tliat wMch. lines the Chest-Cavity— &c.).— 

These two diseases are sometimes co-existent, when it is known 
as pleuro-pneumonia. It would be too much to expect an amateur 
to distinguish between them ; but as the causes and treatment are 
much the same, I shall continue to treat them as one disease. 
This disease is of very common occurrence in dogs, and in many 
cases proves fatal. When it exists as a complication of distemper 
it is known as " chest distemper " ; but other of the respiratoiy 
organs may be involved. 

The causes producing inflammation of the lungs are generally 
exposure to severe cold, allowing dogs to swim during inclement 
weather, clipping dogs or otherwise removing a greater part of 
their natural covering, or washing them and afterwards exposing 
them to excessive cold, especially if not thoroughly dried. In fact, 
any sudden transition from a high to a low temperature may produce 
it, especially in dogs of a delicate constitution and unused to rough- 
ing it. Again, it may occur from over-exertion through running too 
far, or from fractured ribs penetrating the lung-tissue. 


The mora notable symptoms are quick and laboured breathing, the 
inspirations being full, the expirations short, and the breath hot. 
The dog sits on his haunches, and if obliged to move does so reluct- 
antly, and soon resumes that position, with his head pushed for- 
ward. The ribs are more or less fixed, and the abdominal muscles 
brought into action, especially if pleurisy is present. The fixed 
position of the ribs, with the heaving of the flanks, is a most 
characteristic symptom of pleurisy. In affections of the lungs, the 
animal stands with its legs (fore legs) wide apart. If the disease 
progresses, the face has a haggard expression, the angle of the 
mouth is drawn up, and the extremities become deathly cold. 
If not relieved, the dog rapidly gets worse, and the breathing 
becomes more laboured and painful. 

Pleurisy, or inflammation of the iavesting membrane of the lungs, 
often exists independently, or as a complication of pneumonia. To 
treat this disease with any chance of success, it is important that 
the dog should be kept where he can freely breathe fresh, cool air ; 
a hot, stifling place is equally to be avoided with a damp or draughty 
one. Whilst cool, fresh air is insured, the patient must at the same 
time be kept warm by clothing if necessai-y ; it is also needful that 
he should be as little disturbed as possible. If the legs are cold, 
woollen bandages should be placed on all of them. The diet should 
be rather low at first, but not too much so — broth, gruel, etc., are 
suitable under the circumstances. 

In the way of medicines, it is necessaiy that the bowels should be 
kept open by castor oil or the use of clysters. The Fever Mixture 
should be immediately and diligently administered. 

Blisters to the sides, as sometimes advised, are bad, as they cause 
soreness and increase the pain in breathing. Hot Unseed poultices 
should alone be employed throughout the day and night. If the 
fever is high, give J to 1 drop of tincture of aconite, every fifteen 
minutes for two hours, then hourly for eight hours. 

Dogs recovering from this disease are always very weak, and 
require very great care to prevent a relapse, even when aU danger 
appears to be gone. Only the most gentle exercise should be allowed 
at first, and fine weather selected for it. The dog will require 
nourishing diet, which should be plain, and consist for a time of 
broths, etc., a return to solid food being gradual. The dog wiU at 
this stage be greatly benefited by tonics. The most suitable are the 
Concentrated Tonic Mixtiwe ; or for a 201b. dog 2gr. of quinine twice 
a day in a little water ; or 10 to 60 drops of Easton's Syrup in water, 
twice a day after food. 


'SRA'D'S'ESS.—See BABisa 

SXAM9EXTIS (Inflammation of the Milk-Crlands) 

freijiiently occurs. The causes are the retention of milk, the re- 
sult of taking away the puppies immediately after they are bom, 
or too early, or from their death, or cold and injuries. The 
symptoms are a redness and tenderness of the part, the milk is 
curdled, and sometimes pus or blood accompanies it, the former 
if absceaseti have formed. It is highly important that these cases 
should be taken in hand at once. Immediately one notices the 
first symptoms, foment the parts with warm water frequently 
throughout the day, taking care to dab them dry afterwards. 
If the cause is the retention of milk brought about by the bitch 
ha^-ing lost her puppies, or having had them taken away, the secre- 
tion must be fi'equently drawn away by the hand. Where possible, 
and the bitch will take to it, a puppy should be given her. Medici- 
nally, Idr. to 2dr. of Epsom salts should be given, with from lOgr. to 
20gr. of bicarbonate of soda, twice a day in water, until the bowels 
are well relaxed. 

if this treatment is adopted in the early stages of the disease, 
the inflammation will usually subside, and the gland regain its 
normal condition. In protracted cases, however, pus, or matter, will 
accumulate, and abscesses form. The contents of the latter must be 
evacuated by lancing, and boraoic acid lotion er ointment applied to 
the part night and morning ; while to prevent the animal from lick- 
ing it she should have a muzzle with a piece of canvas sewn over 
the front. Where abscesses have formed, generally patches of the 
gland will become obliterated, and of no further use. Mammitis 
may assume a chronic form, and the glands become enlarged and 

SKASTGE.— The very pronounced distinction between tnie mange 
and the modifications of eczema and other causes of irritation of 
the skin — excluding that caused by such visible parasites as lice and 
ticks — is that the former is caused by a parasite, although invisible 
to the naked eye, and that it is readily transferable by contact from 
one animal to another ; whilst eczema, blotch, surfeit, or red mange, 
are not. 

Mange has been a reoognised disease in our kennels for centuries. 
An old writer justly eaJla it " the capital enemy to the quiet and 
beaaty of a brave spauiel; wherewith, poor creatures, they are 

MAKaK. 87 

often grievously troubled, and as of tea infect others," so that if re- 
spectability goes by long and pure descent, mange mites must rank 
very high in animal society. A modem writer on canine pathology 
begins his dissertation on mange with these prefatory remarks : 
" The term mange is generally used by those people who dabble 
in canine matters, mthout the knowledge necessary to diagnose 
correctly, to denote any affection of the skin which results in 
eruption, irritation, or the detachment of hair." This is to a great 
extent true. 

The two clearly defined kinds of parasitic mange — Sarooptic and 
Follicular— are both due to species of mites. 

Sarcoptic Mange. — The mite producing this most nearly 
resembles th6 itch-mite of man, and as it is propagated by eggs, and 
transmitted by contact, direct or indirect, there seems nothing im- 
possible in the idea of stamping out this chief " enemy to the comfort 
of a brave spaniel," if only we could get every dog-owner to be 
careful and clean. There is much virtue in an " if " ; but at least 
we can learn from the facts known about the mange-mite that we 
need not harbour it in our own kennels, and by stamping it out 
there, lessen it generally. Dirt unquestionably harbours and en- 
courages mange, although it does not produce it ; left undisturbed 
by cleansing processes, the pests breed and multiply with great 

When the mite reaches the dog, it burrows into the skin ; the 
process, and also a poisonous fluid discharged by the creature, causes 
intolerable itching, and to relieve tliis the dog scratches, with the 
result that the skin is broken, amall red points appear, and these 
become pustular and disohai'ge a fluid which dries or crusts and 
forms a scab ; the hair falls off. The multiplication of the original 
cause of the evil is rapid, and, left unchecked, the whole sui-face of 
the body soon becomes involved, while the poor dog is an object of 
pity, and from want of rest and other causes sinks into a helpless 
condition. This state is often called virulent or scabby mange, and 
presents many of the characteristics of Blotch. The skin is harsh, 
dry, and rough, until small pimples appear, when therefrom oozes a 
piuTilent matter, forming scabs, which mat the hair together, and 
bring it off in patches as the dog rubs or seratehea himself. The 
back, breast, and insides of the thighs are generally the first places 
attacked, and every crease and wrinkle in the skin becomes is 
flamed and moist with the irritating discharge. If the disease is left 
unchecked, it soon extends over the whole body, reducing the dog to 
a deplorable condition, disgusting to all who see him and intolerable 
to hfanaelf. These are severe and extreme cases. In othere a dry. 



scurfy mange exists, marked by little red spots, agd confined to the 
joints of the legs, over the eyes, the flaps of the ears, etc. ; and this 
may exist some time without other damage than causing the dog 
gi-eat uneasiness and injury to his appearance, by partially destroy- 
ing the hair and robbing it of its natural glossy appearance. Fig. 12 
is a much magnified illustration of the mite causing Sarcoptic mange. 
It is too small to be seen with the naked eye, and it is not until a 
compound mici'oscope comes to our aid that we can see the minute 

The preventive measures are self-evident. Do not permit your 
dog to associate with mangy curs. A dog cannot contract mange 

except by being in contact with 
an infected dog, or where one has 
been and left mites behind him. 
Railway companies should be 
compelled by law to cleanse and 
disinfect their dog-boxes after 
every occupant. Malie periodic 
and very careful examination of 
your dogs, and insist on thorough 
cleanliness in the kennel. 

The first thing to be done with 
a mangy dog is to wash him. 
Let him have a good sousing 
and scmbbing with soft soap and 
water, " hottish rather, but not 
so boiling as to turn him red " ; 
dry well with a soft cloth, which 
must immediately be boiled, 
and then dress him with one or 
other of the innumerable pre- 
parations which their vendors 
riQ. 12. Manoe mite (Sareoptis eanis). declare are never Icnown to fail; 
(Magnified). ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^-^^ following 

remedies, which you can make or get your chemist to prepare for 
you. Whatever you use, see that it is applied thoroughly ; see that 
it reaches the skin where the mites are ensconced, and is not merely 
left on the hair. A very old and very effective remedy for mange is 

Lime-and- Sulphur Lotion. — Take flowers of sulphur, 21b. ; un- 
slaked lime, lib. ; water, 2 gallons. Slake the Hme in a small por- 
tion of the water, stir in the sulphur, adding water gradually until 
it is of a creamy consistence, then add the remainder of the two 
gallons, and boil down to one gallon. Let it stand till cold, pour off 


the clear liquid, and make the quantity to five quarts with cold 

In using, all the affected parts should be freely wetted with it. 
Chronic cases of mange often take a month or two to cure. Spratts' 
Patent make a mange lotion somewhat similar to the above, but 
containing, I believe, other parasiticides, and I have found it con- 
venient and very effective. 

Another excellent preparation is : olive oil, 1 pint ; oil of tar, 4oz. ; 
sulphur, 4oz. This dressing should remain on the skin for one week, 
and then be washed off with hot water and soap, to 
which has been added a Httle soda. It should be * 

repeated in twenty -four hours. The ointment of 
balsam of Peru has also been successfully employed. 

Sulphur is given as an internal remedy for mange, 
but it is not of any use. Whatever external appli- 
cation may be used for mange, the dog, or at least 
the affected parts, should first be well cleansed with 
soap and water, with the addition of a little of the 
carbonates of soda or potash, and afterwards well 
dried. The litter should also be frequently changed, 
while the walls of the kennel, and all posts and 
other places where the dog has rubbed, should be 
treated to Ume-wash containing a little carbolic 
acid. The floors, too, should be swilled with a 
weak solution of the acid or some other disin- 

Various forms of sulphur oiatment are in vogue 
as cures for mange, some of them combining with 
the flowers of sulphur powdered hellebore (a strong 
poison) made up with soft soap, whale or seal oUs, 
turpentine, etc., the whole forming a compound 
as disgusting to sight and smell as the worst cases 
of mange. Moreover, I have not found them one W Ovsl Sucker, 
bit more effective than a simple ointment made 9} J^° 
with 1 part of sulphur to 4 parts of lard. 

Follicular Mange is due to another mite (Demodex 
follieulorum. Fig. 13), very different in appearance from the 
Sareoptis, which are short and thick, whereas the Demodex is elon- 
gated, and with a long, obtuse taU. These parasites differ in their 
habits, the Demodex living in the hair-follicles, and burrowing 
deep under the skin in the sebaceous gland that supplies the 
unctuous matter to protect the skin and keep it soft. The depth 
to which the Demodex burrows renders Follicular mange much less 
easy of transmission beweeu dogs ; but it also makes a cure much 

dex folliculoruTn). 


more difficult, as the parasites are hard to reach. This mite is 
identical with a parasite found in the human skin causing some 
disfiguration of the face, but further than that it does no harm 
until transferred to the dog, when it causes a most repulsive 
disease, and one very difficult to eradicate. 

Some few years ago Mr. Wm. Hunting, F.R.C.V.S., in con- 
junction with Professor Duguid, made a series of investigations 
and experiments in elucidation of this disease, and the following 
description of symptoms and the diagnosis are from an article by 
the former gentleman, which appeared in the Veterinary Journal, 
and afterwards in pamphlet form : 

" The symptoms of the disease are seldom seen in the first stages ; 
they consist merely of circumscribed spots from which the hair falls, 
and upon which are noticeable a few small pimples. These patches 
extend rapidly, and fresh ones appear on other parts. Any portion 
of the skin may be affiscted, but the head, legs, belly, and sides, are 
usually the seat of the disease. The affected places are almost 
hairless, and what hair remains is easily puUed out ; small pimples 
and pustules stud the surface, the latter varying in size from a pin's 
head to that of a pea. The confluence of the pustules, and the 
discharge of their contents, give rise to scabs; these crack and 
bleed, and so produce a most repulsive appearance. In white-haired 
dogs the skin is red ; in all it is extremely hot, and emits an un- 
pleasant odour. The irritation does not excite much scratching, 
but the dog frequently shakes himself. More pain than itching 
seems to accompany the disease. In cases where the whole body 
is affected, loss of condition is most marked ; and in cold weather 
the almost total loss of hair may cause death, if the animal be not 
kept in a warm place. This stage, too, is always accompanied by 
ravenous appetite, due, probably, to the rapid loss of animal heat. 

" Diagnosis. — In white dogs the colour of the skin may cause the 
disease to be mistaken for ' Red Mange ' or ' Eczema. ' The 
circumscribed spots in the first stages may be confounded with some 
forms of Tinea ; and the loss of hair and the presence of scabs seen 
in the fully developed disease may easily be mistaken for ordinary 
scabies. The pustules, the heat of the skin, and the comparatively 
slight itchiness shown, are, however nearly diagnostic. Positive 
diagnosis can only be made by the aid of the microscope and the 
detection of the parasite. 11 we puncture one of the pustules, and 
mix its contents on a slide with a little water, the acari are easily 
discovered. I have found as many as thirty to one pustule. 
Sometimes we may detect them on the root of a hair removed from 
an affected spot. With a low power, the parasites scmewhat 
resemble sprats or minnows, but a higher power shows them to 

KAlfOg. SI 

consist of a head anri body, which latter terminatea in a long and 
obtusely pointed tail. They are furnished 'nith six or eight legs 
situated on the anterior part of the body, three or four on each side. 
The head consists of two antennse and a median proboscis, all of 
which are capable of being moved forwards and backwards. The 
legs consist of three segments. The movements of the creatures 
are not often seen, and are very slow. The parasite measures 
about one-hundredth of an inch in length by one five-hundredth in 

In regard to treatment, Fleming, in " Veterinary Sanitary 
Science," says : " The situation of the DemodRx renders it almost 
inaccessible to parasiticidal remedies ; the disease it engenders is 
therefore looked upon as extremely troublesome, and, in the 
majority of cases, almost beyond a cure. Often, when it is believed 
to be extinguished, it reappears in all its virulence in one or two 
months. Nevertheless, Ziim asserts that he has frequently 
succeeded with an oLatment composed of 1 part of benzine to 
4 parts of lard. Weiss recommends the inunction of essence of 
juniper. Zundel states that the balsam of Peru has often yielded 
good results when the malady has not been of too long duration ; 
he has employed it dissolved in alcohol (1 to 30) ; he has likewise 
used the green ointment of mercuiy with success, aa well as the 
nitrate of silver ointment. Hofer speaks highly of an ointment 
composed of carbolic acid and Vogel prescribes a solution of caustic 

Messrs. Hunting and Buguid, after many unsuccessful experi- 
ments, adopted the plan of softening the skin and breaking up the 
outicular covering by the application of oil and caustic potash. The 
following is Mr. Hunting's formula: "Creosote Joz. ; olive oU, 
7oz. ; liquor of potash, goz. ; first mix the creosote and oil, and then 
add the potash, mixing them by agitation. ' ' With this the affected 
spots should be dressed twice a week, allowing longer intervals when 
tie skin becomes soft and tender. Mr. Hunting says a cure i-equires 
fi-om three to eight months, and a longer time allowed for the growth 
of the hair. 

I have had some experience of Follicular mange, but principally 
with pugs. In one case I had two sent to me in a very bad state, 
and both eventually became eatii-ely denuded of hair. The treat- 
ment I adopted was washing — I might say soaking — the dogs in a 
strong lather of soft soap, hot water, and pearl-ash, carefully drying. 
One, the youngest, I painted over with a solution of iodide of po- 
tassium, loz. in a pint of water, and after allowing it to dry, applied 
very freely Spratt's Mange Lotion. To the other, after drying, I 
applied the lotion witiiout the solution of iodide of potassium, and 


this process I repeated every other day. The dogs were in my pos- 
session about ten weeks, by which time they were perfectly free from 
disease, and the re-growth of hair had made considerable progress. 
Of internal medicines the dogs had very little, some podophyllin 
pills when I first began treatment, after which I regulated the bowels 
as required by diet, increasing or decreasing the ^quantity of fresh 
vegetables, but no alteratives such as arsenic were employed. 

I did not find that the one treated with iodide of potassium made 
more rapid rfeoovery than the other, and in instances where I have 
had to prescribe since, I have found similar treatment equally 
effective. The following is aiso useful in Follicular mange : olive oil, 
1 pint ; oU of tar, 4oz. ; sulphur, 4oz. This should be well rubbed 
into the skin every third day, and the dog washed with warm water 
and soap, to which ;has been added a little soda, at the end of the 
week. In all cases of Follicular mange it is well to shave all the 
hair off the animal before applying any dressing. 

MAW-WORMS.— /See Worms. 

MENINGITIS.— iSee Brain, Inflammation of the. 

MIIsE SECRETION.- During pregnancy, as is fairly well 
known, the system is in an unusuaJly active condition, and conse- 
quently the animal is readily impressionable. AU undue excitement 
should therefore be carefully avoided, and strangers should be denied 
admittance to the animal and, especially to those animals which are 
likely to resent it. This strict exclusion of visitors is more im- 
portant when the bitch has pupped. 

The iirst secretion of the mammary glands is known as the 
colostrum ; this acts as a natural purgative to the pupa, and removes 
the meconium which is present. During the first week of puppy- 
hood, the conversion of the colostrum into true milk should take 
place; but undue excitement will suspend or retard this process. 
The result of this is severe purging of the pups, and often death. 
Handling the pups more than is absolutely necessary should be 
strictly avoided ; while great harm may be wrought by being in and 
out of the kennel too frequently. 

MILK, ABSENCE OP.— This condition is often met with in 
bitches. It is usually the result of weakness, obesity, or disease of 
the mammary glands. It may only be temporaiy, when friction to 
the glands with the hand may restore the secretion. To weakly 
bitchea, however, a tcaspoonful to a tablespoonfol of the follovdng 


mixture should be given three times a day : Tincture ciuchonse co., 
loz. ; liquor cinchonse flav. ^dr. ; spirits of ammonia aromatic, ^oz, • 
water to 6oz. The diet must be nourkhing and liberal. 

MILK-FEVEXt (Parturient Apoplexy) is uncommon in the 
bitch, but there is always a risk of causing it by robbing the mother 
of the whole of her puppies, especially if she is fuU of milk ; there- 
fore tliat course should never be adopted. The symptoms are apparent 
weakness, staggering, quick, hard breathing, hot, dry nose and 
tongue, the latter thickly furred, the milk is suppressed, and the 
bitch shows extreme thirst. In milk-fever when the animal is un- 
conscious, nourishment, such as brandy and milk, can be administered 
per rectum. The bladder must be emptied by means of the catheter. 

If possible, apply ice to the head, but if that is not obtaiuable, then 
use cold spring water, changing it often, and relieve the bowels by 
clysters. The patient should be kept perfectly quiet, and a soft bed 
on an iaclined plane must be provided, so that the head may be 
somewhat elevated. This elevation of the head is veiy important. 



MOUTH, CANSEB OF THE.— This disease is generally 
the result of too dainty feeding, combined with want of exercise, 
although it may arise in old dogs from failing teeth, and consequent 
want of masticating power. Both these causes lead to disordered 
stomach and foul breath ; a deposit of tartar takes place, the gums 
and lips become red, inflamed, and spongy, and there is after a time 
more or less of fetid discharge from the mouth, frequently accom- 
panied with bleeding. Old animals are the most subject to canker 
of the mouth, and, on examination, most probably some of the teeth 
will be found decayed, and the gums so tender that, in attempting to 
eat, the dog suffers great pain. 

To cure the disease, remove the catise ; return to a more rational 
way of feeding, and give proper exercise. It will be necessaiy to 
examine the mouth carefully, and if the exciting cause be decayed 
teeth, then remove all loose rotten stumps with a pair of suitable 
forceps. This will be done more readily than may be supposed, and 
a very Uttle practice will voa,k.e anyone efficient. Whilst extracting 
the teeth, the dog's head must be held firmly by an assistant. It 
will be evident that, whilst the dog's mouth is in such a tender 
state, he must be supplied with food that requires no chewing. This 
wiU be necessary for other reasons also. The disordered stomach 
must be corrected, and a diet, principally vegetable. wUl assist in 


doing so. By way of medicine the dog should have a brisk dose o{ 
Podophyllin Fills and afterwards one or two, awscording to the size of 
the animal, of the following should be given twice a day till all 
untoward symptoms have disappeared : 

Stomachic Boha. — Take extract of gentiaa, Idr. ; powdered 
rhubarb, 36gr. ; carbonate of soda, 12gr. ; gum acacia, sufficient to 
make into twelve lOgr. piUs. If considered preferable, the in- 
gi-edients may be rubbed down with water and given in the form 
of a drench in proportionate doses. In the liquid foi-m the medicine 
must be freshly made, but the pills will keep good any reasonable 
length of time. 5gr. to 15gr. of carbonate of biamnth, given dry 
upon the tongue, night and morning, will also act beneficially. 

As a wash for the mouth, and to remove the unpleasant smell from 
the foulness of the breath, teeth, etc., Condy's Fluid should be used, 
properly diluted. The following will harden the gums and assist in 
bringing them to a healthy state ; 

Mouth Wash. — Take powdered alum, Joz. ; simple tincture of 
myrrh, loz. ; dissolve the alum in a pint of water, and add the 
tincture of myrrh. This should be applied to the gums pretty 
frequently and freely, by means of a piece of sponge or rag tied on 
the end of a stick, or with a soft tooth-brush. Powdered boracic 
acid Iscr. , water to 6oz. , is also a good mouth wash. The ulcers that 
occur upon the gums should be touched with a ten per cent solution 
of nitrate of silver. Another excellent wash for the mouth in such 
cases is solution of chlorinated soda, diluted with twenty-four to 
thirty times its volume of water. The mouth should be freely 
washed with this several times a day. 

NAV^Ii ESKITZA. — An enlargement of the navel, erroneously 
called a wind navel, is often met with in puppies, and may be simply 
an expansion of the same. Navel hernia, or umbilical hernia, is the 
protrusion of a portion of the intestine, or the omentum (the mem- 
laranouB covering of the bowels). It is frequently congenital, and 
may be caused by extra strain on the umbilical cord at birth ; or the 
tongue of the mother may extend the wound. The part is soft and 
movable, and varies in size, but is most prominent when the stomach 
and bowels are faU. 

In treating, fast the pup, and place over the enlargement a pad of 
vulcanised indiarubber or cork, tapered, the smaller end being applied 
to the protruding part after it has been pressed in, which should b« 


done when the bowels are nearly empty, and the pad secured by 
strips of white leather smeared with warm pitch plaster, or by means 
of Mead's plaster, to be obtained of any chemist. This should ba 
done after the pup has been weaned and separated from its mother, 
or she will with her tongue remove or displace the application. 

KTEPHKITIS.— Sea Kidneys, Inflammation of. 

NOSTOMAETIA (Horae Sickness).— This is often seen in 
dogs which, fiom some cause or other, have to leave their home and 
friends, and reside for a time in a hospital. It therefore behoves 
everyone who has charge of such dogs, to make them comfortable, 
and treat them as nearly as possible, consistent with rational and 
medical treatment, as they would be at home. It is absolutely 
cruel to place a nervous, and highly sensitive pet dog in a kennel 
surrounded by other dogs which are continually barking, or to give 
them over entirely to an attendant, which is too frequently done 
in hospitals, the owner of the establishment, or the veterinary 
surgeon, only attending at intervals. All pets should be taken into 
the house, or have a special place set apart for them, where they 
can receive personal attention, and have their small comforts 
attended to. 


OBE8ITT.— 5e« Fatness, Excessitk. 

OSSTRUS!!: (The Period of Heat). — Bitches are usually 
in this condition twice a year, or twice in the twelve months, but 
this rule is not without exception, for sometimes it only occurs once, 
and ai other times more than twice a year. The symptoms are a 
general change of the habits of the animals, and of temper, a savage 
bitch often becoming docile, and viae vend. The bitch becomes rest- 
less, the external generative organs are swollen and hot, and a dis- 
charge of a whitish colour is present. Gradually this discharge 
becomes slightly tinged with blood, and finally blood alone issues 
from the vulva. The bitch frequently passes water, and in small 

The period of oestrum varies iu difl'erent individuals, from one 
week to three. An animal in this condition should be carefully 
watched ; it should not on any account be allowed to enter the water. 
Where a bitch is more frequently on heat than twice a year shs 


r&rely conceives. During the period of heat the food shotild be 
light, and the bowels kept regular. 

OFHTHALMIA. — What is called the conjunctiva is the 
muoous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids, and, 
sfi its name suggests it, joins these with the eyeball. Ophthalmia 
is an inflammation of this mucous membrane. It is a disease un- 
fortunately very common in dogs and varies greatly in severity, 
in some cases, when arising from constitutional causes, becoming 
chronic. Sporting dogs are said to be more liable to it than other 
breeds, but I do not think so, and I believe the idea originated from 
the fact that these have generally been more exposed to circum- 
stances exciting it. 

Anything that will set up local irritation, such as the intrusion of 
dust, flies, etc. , the scratch of a cat, a blow, exposure to sudden and 
extreme changes of temperature — as plunging into or being thrown 
into cold water when heated — and excessive exertion, are occasionally 
causes ; but the commonest causes are the vapours of foul kennels or 
hot stables, and derangement of the digestive organs. An inverted 
eyelash may occasion ophthalmia, while it is very often found as 
an accompaniment of distemper. 

The symptoms are an intolerance of light and a watery discharge, 
whUe on the eyelids being opened and examined there is seen to be 
congestion of the lining membrane, and across the cornea, or front 
clear portion of the eye, there are red streaks. Ulceration soon 
follows, and a white film obscures the eye and interferes with the 

When treating a dog for ophthalmia, the cause should be first 
sought for, and if it be some foreign irritating body, or an eyelash 
growing in a wrong direction, these should be removed. A mild dose 
of cooling aperient medicine should be given, and the eye well and 
frequently bathed with a decoction of poppy-heads ; afterwards, if 
the inflammation be considerable, one of the following lotions may 
be used several times a day with advantage : 

Eye Lotions. — (1) Extract of belladonna, Jdr. ; rose-water, 4oz. ; 
wine of opium, 2dr. ; mixed. When ulceration has taken place, or 
is going on, use this lotion : (2) Sulphate of zinc, 12gr. ; tincture of 
belladonna, Idr. ; wine of opium, 2dr. ; rose-water, 4oz. ; mixed. 

In ophthalmia the most external covering of the eyeball is the seat 
of the inflammation ; chis covering or mucous membrane is closely 
adherent to the cornea (Fig, 14, A). If ophthalmia goes unchecked, the 
deep-seated structures like the iris (Fig. 16) become involved. The 
iris is for the purpose of regulating the amount of light that is trans- 
mitted to the retina (Fig. 14, a) through the pupil (Fig. 16, 1). The 


latter is an aperture in the centre of the iris (Fig. 15), and is eapahle of 
contraction and expansion ; hence in a strong light the pupil becomes 
smaller; and in a dim light, or in the dark the pupillary opening is 
large. The iris, which also gives the colour to the eye, as before 

Fig. 14. Section of Eyeball, show- Fig. 15. Iris, showing, 1, Pupil- 

A, Cornea ; B, Lens ; c, Iris ; D, An- lary Opening ; 2, Attached 

terior Chamber and Aqueous Humour ; Border. 

E, Sclerotic Coat ; F, Choroid Coat ; G, 
Retina ; H, Vitreous Humour. 

mentioned is sometimes the seat of disease, and the pupillary 
opening loses its power of movement. 

A little of the following ointment may also be introduced into 
the eye, night and morning. Yellow oxide of mercury, Igi-. ; lard or 
vaseline, Idr. Or the eye may be touched night and morning with 
a camel-hair brush which has been dipped into nitrate of silver, 2gr. ; 
distilled water, ^oz. 

If the disease be thought to be sympathetic with derangement of 
the digestive organs, change the diet, and in any case give light and 
nutritious food. When the eye is veiy sensitive to light, the dog 
should be kept in a shaded kennel and not exercised in the glare of 
the sun ; but exercise is absolutely necessary to general health, 
especially in weakly dogs ; and so is light, so that the place where 
the patient is kept, whilst shaded, must not be absolutely dark. 
The kennel must be perfectly clean, and if disinfectants are needed, 
avoid chloride of lime or carbolic acid, as they might increase the 
inflammation. Condy's Fluid would be most suitable under the 

OSTITIS (Inflammation of the Bone).— This disease may 
be due to direct violence, blows, etc., or to constitutional disturbance, 
such as rheumatism or scrofula. The symptoms are pain, heat and 
swelling of the skin at the affected part, and lameness. Best is 
most essential in treating these cases, and should be combined with 

99 DisKASKs or ooag. 

hot fomentations to the part and a dose of aperient medicine ; when 
due to rheumatism, the systemic treatment recommended vmder 
Rheumatism should be adopted ; and should there be an enlarge- 
ment left after the acute inflammation has subsided, the part should 
be painted daily with tincture of iodine, unless soreness is produced, 
when this treatment should cease for a day or two. 

OZffiNA.— This complaint shows itself by a discharge from 
both nostrils. The causes are diseased teeth, protracted catarrh, 
causing chronic inflammation of the lining membrane of the nose, 
polypi, or inflammation of the sinuses of the nose, due to the presence 
of foreign matter in that organ. Where the disease is due to decayed 
teeth, the latter should be extracted ; or to polypi, these should be 
removed. The nostrils should be syringed night and morning with 
a saturated solution of boracic acid ; or the tincture of hydrastis is 
often useful — 1 part of tincture to equal parts of water. Exercise 
and fi-esh air are very neeesaary to recovery. 


PABiA£7SIS. — Most people are familiar with the appearance 
of paralysis — the loss of muscular power in the part affected, and the 
consequent wasting of the muscles. It is generally confined to one 
set of muscles, but may be general, and it varies in degree from pro- 
ducing a slight tottering gait to complete loss of power and inability 
to walk. It arises from pressure or injuiy to the brain or to the 
spinal cord. If one side of the brain be affected, the opposite side of 
the body will be paralysed ; if the whole of the brain be involved, 
the paralysis will be general, and where it arises from injury to the 
spine it is in the parts behind the injury that power is lost. 

Paralysis very often foUows distemper, and the hindquarters 
generally suffer ; the dog, in severe cases, loses the use of his Mnd 
legs in walking, and drags them behind him. In such instances the 
njuscles of the thigh soon waste, and cure is very rare indeed. Long- 
standing constipation will induce paralysis, and it is not infrequently 
the result of debility and old age. Paralysis of the lower jaw is a 
distinctive symptom of dumb madness, and renders the subject of it 
incapable of biting. Loss of power and wasting of the hindquarters 
may also be caused by tapeworm. 

So long as the dog can use his Umbs, he should be given regular, 
gentle exercise. The food should be nourishing, and rather laxa- 
tive. Oatmeal porridge, mixed with strong broth, every other 
day, will generally act gently on the bowels. Where the disease 


\a connected with debility, it is very necessary to maintain the 
strength by extra food ; give, therefore, more than usual of cooked 
meat, and in small quantities at frequent intervals. The medicine 
relied on in these cases are tonics ia general and stiychnine — the 
active principle of nux vomica — which has a special power over the 
muscles and nerves. Igr. of powdered nux vomica, or j^gr. of 
stiychnine, combined with 2gr. of extract of gentian, and Igr. of 
quinine, made into a pill, is the dose for a 201b. dog. It is almost 
needless to observe that very great care must be used ia com- 
pounding pills containing a minute quantity of such a powerful 
drug as strychnine. A dose should be given twice a day. Syrup 
of the phosphates, with strychnia, called Easton's Syrup, is often 
of great service in relieving mild cases of paralysis; and gal- 
vanism is sometimes beneficial. 

In applying the electric battery in cases of paralysis the following 
is the mode : Procure two earthenware vessels (metal ones will not 
do), and cover the bottom of each with cold water. Put the two 
handles of the battery in the water, one in each vessel, and start tha 
appliance. Place one foot of the dog in each vessel, both hind feet 
or both fore feet, as the case may suggest, or the right fore foot and 
left hind one and so on. The water ia the vessels should be just 
sufficient to cover the feet. Five to ten minutes, twice a day, ia 
long enough for the battery to be employed. 

In paralysis of the hind legs the bladder generally participates;' 
or the animal being unable to stand, cannot pass the urine freely. 
In such cases the catheter must be passed night and morning, or the 
the animai held up, and pressure applied to each side, in the region of 
the bladder, to expel its contents. To prevent bed sores, and con- 
gestion of one lung, the animal must be turned over occasionally. 

PARASITES, EXTEKH AL.— The number and variety of 
parasites that make one part or another of the dog their habitat is 
very great. These are divided into external and iatemal ; in the 
former two distinct mites, producing two very distinct forms of 
the mange, have already been referred to, and the internal parasites 
will be treated under WORMS. 

There is no dog-owner of much experience who is not aware that 
great care and cleanUnesa are needed to prevent the introduction of 
these unwelcome visitors, or who has not had to pay smartly for their 
extermination, if his kennels have been leglected. The parasites to 
which I particularly wish to direct attention are four in number — 
the louse, the flea, the tick, and the harvest-bug. 

Lice, — Two species of lice (F5g. 16) infest the dog. One is the 



true or sucking louse (Scematopinus piliferus, Fig. 16), and is thua 
described in Professor Neumann's "Parasites," translated by Professor 
Fleming: ''The head is short and al- 
most as wide as long ; it is saKent in 
the thorax to which it is exactly applied ; 
the third and fourth articles of the an- 
tennae are alike. The abdomen is very 
developed in the female, and is a long f:g. le. Dog louse. 

ovaJ in shape; it has nine rounded seg- 
ments, which are often salient at the sides ; stigmates distinct and 
marginal ; the first seven segments have two rows of short bristles. 
The general tint is yello^vish-white, the head and thorax being 
a little darker. The female is 2mm. long, and the male I'lSmm." 
This louse is oftener found about the throat and back of the ears, 
but extends to all parts of the body. 

The other louse of the dog is Trichodeetes latus, of which this 
is Neumann's description : " The head is sub-quadrangular and much 
wider than it is long, being truncated in front; the antennse are 
hairy and different in the two sexes, the first article in the male being 
much thicker, and occupying a moiety of the length of the organ. 
The abdomen is broad, and more rounded in the female, with lateral, 
but no median spots. The colour is bright yellow, spots darker ; the 
bands on the head are blackish-bro^vn. Length of the female is 
l-5mm., of the male l'4mm." This is a biting louse, and is allied to 
the Bird-Lice. 

Lice, under favourable conditions, multiply at a marvellous rate. 
In fact, so prodigious is theu- fecundity, that it has been calculated 
the third generation of a louse may number 125,000, independent of 
the gi'eat destnietion from many causes which restrain this mtdti- 
plication, They excite great irritation, causing the dog to scratch 
and worry himself continually. Lice live on all parts of the body, 
but are generally most abundant about the head and face, round the 
eyes, roots of the ears, and along the top of the back. If the dog's 
skin be closely examined, red streaks and dots of blood will be ob 
served where the enemy has been feeding, but the actual presence oi 
the foe, which will be seen creeping about, will be a sufficient incen- 
tive to his destruction, without witnessing the havoc he has made. 
There are numberless nostrums made and advertised for the destruc- 
tion of these pests, some of which are quite as likely to Idll the 
dog as the parasite. WMte precipitate in dry powder well rubbed 
into the coat and skin, and left there for four or five hours, and then 
thoroughly brushed out, is a certain cure ; but it has the disad- 
vantage of being a mercurial poison, and when it is used it becomes 
necessary that the dog should be muzzled during the whole time the 


powder is on him to prevent him from licking it. For this purpose 
a canvas-faced muzzle is the safest and hest. Care should also be 
taken that the dog is not exposed to wet while the precipit!».te is on 
him, aa it would be difficult to remove it from the coat after wetting. 
It is also advisable that the person brushing the precipitate out of 
the coat should wear a light covering over mouth and nose during 
the operation. An equally effective remedy is the Lime-and-Sulphur 
Lotion prescribed for MANGE. If the coat and skin be thoroughly 
saturated with it, and left so for ten minut«s. or a quarter of aa 
hour, all that will be left of the insects wiU be shrivelled carcases. 
The dog should then be well washed with soap and warm water and 
thoroughly combed and brushed tiU he is perfectly dry. Foj 
delicate dogs, and those with tender skins, the lotion should bs 
reduced in strength, by adding equal, or even two, parts of water to 
one of lotion, and if any doubt exist in the operator's mind aa to the 
course to take, let him try the weaker solution first, and watch its 
effects, when he can make it stronger as required. Olive oU 2 parts, 
and paraflSn 1 part, is another good insecticide, as is also the follow- 
ing : dissolve ioz. of hard soap in 1 quart of water, and add to thia 
^oz. of oil of stavesaore. Bub this preparation well into the skin, 
allow it to remain on for three days, at the end of which time wash 
off with hot water and soap, well dry, and repeat the dressing. The 
dog must be muzzled, as the dressing is poisonous. 

These dressings should be repeated in eight days, in order to it 
stroy the young Uce hatched from the " nits," or eggs, laid before ths 
previous dressing. 

Trichodectes latus plays a very important part, being the inter- 
mediary host of one of the tapeworms of the dog. The history is ass 
curious as it is important for dog-owners to know, and I therefore quotf: 
the following from Dr. Spencer Cobbold, who says : " The joints of the 
worm, having escaped per anus, readily crawl as semi-independent 
creatures on the coat of the dog, chiefly on the back and sides. The 
eggs thus distributed are readily swallowed by the louse of the dog 
[Trichodectes latus). 

"In the body of the louse, the six-hooked embryo, hitherto 
eontained in the egg of the tapeworm, escapes the shell, and 
becomes transformed into a minute cyeticercus, or louse measls. 
When the dog is irritated by the lice, it attacks, bites, and frequently 
swallows the offending external parasite. In this way the lonse- 
measle is transferred to the dog's iatestinal canal, where, in course of 
time, it develops into the sexually mature cucumerine tapeworm. " 

The above very curious and important bit of history of the taps- 
worm and the dog louse should teach the practical lesson of thorough 
&nd constant cleanliness in the kennel. 



Fleas QPuleiB serratioeps, Fig. 17) are familiar to most dog- 
owners, and with their very lively propensities are more mischievous 
and annoying, if leas disgusting, than the lice which, with them, 
infest and torment the dog. Numerous are the means suggested 
for the destruction of fleas, and scores of drugs, simple and compound, 
are in vogue for this purpose. For pet dogs I do not think there is 
anything at once so innocent, so clean, and so efiective, as Keating's 
Persian Insect Powder ; the price alone is against it, that being un- 
necessarily high. It con- 
sists, I believe, of the 
powdered flowers of Pt/- 
rethrum roseum, and is 
used in a dry state by 
simply rubbing it into 
the roots of the hair or 
blowing it in with' suit- 
able miniature bellows, 
which are sold for that 
purpose by most chem- 
ists. The best article 
of the kind I have seen 
is one of French manu- 
facture, worked by a 
small jjiston, acting on 
a spring of spiral wire, 
covered with a piece of 
glazed calico, the whole 
neatly encased in tin, 
with an aperture at the 
bottom for filling with 
powder. The powder 
is blown out of a long 
spout with such force 
as to spread it among 
the roots of the hair. 
The whole apparatus, when iiUed, costs only Is. 

Within the last few years a large trade has sprung up in " dog 
soaps, "most of them depending on carbolic acid for their flea-destroy- 
ing properties, and all of them claiming special virtues in improving 
the dog's coat, curing mange, getting liim in condition, and all the 
rest of it. Professor Williams, of Edinburgh, strongly condemns 
the use of carbolic acid soap on the dog. And I myself have had 
convincing proofs of the ill effects of carbolic acid and carbolic acid 
soaps on dogs, and have seen that the acid, even in the mild form of 

Fig. 17. The Dog Flea, with ORniNAEY Flea 
SHOWH ABOVE. (Both much magnifled.) 


soap, will poison by absorption through the skin, and that when 
there is no abrasion. I have had numbers of instances of it brought 
under my notice, and two very well marked cases I personally 
treated. In one case, a toy terrier, great depression arid trembling 
were followed by profuse bleeding of the nose, and the dog died, 
despite all that could be done. Another case was that of a strong fox 
terrier. His mistress was herself washing him with a carbolic acid 
soap when she was called away to see a visitor and for some 
short time the dog was left with the lather fi-om the soap upon 
him ; the result was very great depression and weakness, with con- 
stant trembling and loss of appetite. I gave the dog brandy and 
quinine and iron, as well as cold douches, followed immediately with 
brisk and continued rubbing, and he recovered, but it was several 
weeks before he regained his usual health. 

Some years ago Spratts' Patent brought out a dog soap at my 
suggestion, and I have found it in practice thoroughly suited to its 
pm'pose. The advantages it possesses are that it contains nothing 
poisonous to man or dog, but a vegetable iasecticide that proves 
certain death to fleas. I have frequently seen, after washing with 
carbolic acid and other dog soaps, the fleas apparently dead, but, 
on being put under a glass la the sun, their very lively actions have 
soon proved they were not dead, but had only been for the time 
.stupefied. Spratts' soap, however, kills them outright, and among 
its minor advantages it is colourless, and improves the coat and skia. 
Naldire's is another harmless soap ; while 1 part of Jeyes' Fluid to 
40 of water, or Newton Chambers's Izal, will readily kill fleas. 

A strong infusion of quassia, made by suspending a couple of 
ounces of quassia wood chips, tied in a piece of muslin, in a bucket 
of water, for two or three hours, occasionally stirring it, is useful in 
killing fleas ; it is free from danger, and being almost) colourless is 
an advantage in washing white dogs. The infusion must be used 
instead of plain water with either soft soap or curd soap, a good 
lather being made to penetrate the dog's coat to the skin. Some 
plain w^ater should be poured over the dog to finish the washing and 
remove the quassia from the coat. 

Whatever insecticide is employed, its application should be 
repeated several times, to ensure perfect eradication of the pests. 
This will be the better understood if a brief sketch of the life- 
history of the lively Uttte creature is given. UnUke the louse, the 
flea undergoes what entomologists term a complete metamorphosis, 
egg, larva, pupa, and perfect insect stages having to be passed. 
Contrary, too, to the general belief, the flea is parasitic in the last 
stage only. That being so, the advisability of treating the kennel 
ii-iUi something destructive to the eggs, larvae, and pupae, will at 



once be evident. The mother flea deposits her eggs in the cracks of the 
floor-boards, in the dust which congregates in the comers of the 
kennel, etc. , and in due time these eggs are hatched, and whitish 
footless maggots result. These in about fourteen days assume the 
pupal state in a silken cocoon, and in about a fortnight after the 
perfect insect (flea) stage is reached and the cycle of existence is 
again begun. It would tlierefore be useless to rid a dog say of fleas 
and return him at once to a kennel which had not been scrubbed, 
as in a veiy short time the animal would be as Dadly infested 
as ever. 

Ticks (Ixodes rieinus, Fig. 18) are less common and less known 
than either the flea or the louse. In appearance they bear some 

resemblance in body to a spider, 
to which, in fact, they are re- 
lated. Ticks vaiy in size from 
a pin's head to a small pea. 
The coioui of the smaller ones 
is a Ugh grey, but they become 
dark when gorged with blood. 
The tick fastens in the skin, 
and holds on with such tenacity 
as frequently to part in two in 
the attempt made to remove it. 
The cure for ticks most to be 

„ „ , , . ,. , relied on is either the white 

Fig. 18. Dog Tick, (x about 7 diam.) • -4 x j 4.1, r-™, 

precipitate powder or the Lime- 

and-Sulphur Lotion, used as already directed ; but an excellent wash 
for dogs infested with ticks is sold by Mr, J. Dawson, 84, Lowther 
Street, Carlisle. 

Ticks occasionally occur even in the best regu- 
lated of kennels, as it is of course impossible to 
prevent a dog coming in contact with another 
infested with the pests. Though often found 
upon dogs and other animals, ticks are not truly 
parasitic on them, their food in. the ordinary way 
being vegetable. Once ticks make their ap- 
pearance, no time must be lost in ridding the 
dog of his persecutors. The kennel must also be 
treated, as in that the animals find lodgment. 

Harvest Bugs ( Tromhidii). — Nearly 
everyone is acquaiated with the harvest bug 
which in summer thrusts its unwelcome pre- 
FiG. 19. The Har- gence upon man. Few, however, seem to be 
60 diam.) aware that these mites are troublesome to dogs. 


ilaxvest bugs are aow regarded as belonging to several speciea 
of Trombidium, and not as was once the case to one species known 
as Leptus autumnalis. The accompanying illustration (Fig. 19) 
gives an accurate idea of the mites in both the adult and the larval 
stages, the former having eight and the latter six legs. These pests 
burrow into the skin and create a most intolerable itching. They 
are, however, readily destroyed by dressing the skin with equal 
parts of olive oU and petroleum, or touching the spot with benzine 
on a camel-hair pencil. The treatment suggested for mange would 
also be efficacious. 


PABTURITION. — The period of gestation in the dog is, 

sixty-three days, and m a majority of cases the bitch pups on the 
sixty-third day, although that may occur a day or two earlier or 
later. It is important to keep a register, so that preparation may be 
made for the event. A quiet, retired place should be selected, with 
plenty of room for the bitch, and so easily accessible that assistance 
may be readily given if required. A bed of fresh, soft hay is suit- 
able, and especially in cold weather. This may be on a boarded 
floor ; for whatever is put down for a bed the bitch will scrape a nest 
in it to the solid ground, and if that is damp soil, or cold flags or 
bricks, the pups would get chilled ; but when the soil is dry, no 
better foundation for a bed can be found. 

The symptoms of approaching parturition are : Considerable en- 
largement of the mammae, and of the external organs of generation, 
with more or less discharge of glairy matter, and frequent urination ; 
the bitch becomes restless, and moves about from place to place in 
search of a locality which to her mind is suitable for the nest. 

The veiy best advice I can give to the breeder is, do not interfere. 
The few cases where it will be absolutely necessary to do so will only 
add force to the wisdom of the rule. Next, even when help is called 
for, do not interfere too soon, and, if manual assistance has to be 
'given, avoid unnecessary force. When labour is protracted, the 
liquid extract of lye — dose for a 201b. bitch, 10 or 12 drops — given 
with a little brandy and water, will generally greatly assist the bitch 
in the delivery of her pups. The cases of greatest d8,nger are where 
a bitch has been allowed to stray during csstmm, and mated herself 
with a dog of much larger size than herself. Very finely-bred and 
highly- pampered bitches often suflFer greatly, and die in the act of 
giving birth. In healthy parturition even, considerable time is often 
occupied, the rest between being of great service in supporting the 
bitch against the prostration consequent on the event. She should 
not be interfered with in these intervals, and it is foolish to try to 
force food upon her. 


In all cases where difficulty from wrong presentation or the dig- 
proportioned size of the pups occur, alike from motives of prudence 
and humanity, the veterinary surgeon should be consulted, for his 
obstetric knowledge and skill in manipulation wiU save much un- 
necessaiy suffering, and probably the lives of mother and pups. 

FBNIS, DISCHABGi: FB.OSE (Balanitis).— Some dogs 
suffer from an inflanunation and excited state of the organs of 
generation, with frequent partial erections, accompanied with dis- 
charge of a thick yellowish matter, very loathsome, especially in a 
house and companion dog. In treating, bathe the parts very fre- 
quently with cold water, give a strong dose of ordinary black 
draught, and the following medicine : 

Mixture /or Balanitis. — Bicarbonate of soda and bicarbonate of 
potash, of each 2dr. ; tincture of henbane, 3dr. ; Mindererus' spirit, 
IJoz. ; and water to make 6oz. Dose for a 401b. or 501b. dog, a 
tablespoonful four or five times a day. The prepuce should also be 
syringed with weak Condy's Fluid, or a lotion composed of boracic 
acid Isc. and water to 6oz. 

Give the dog barley-water to drink, and but little meat. Porridge, 
milk, and broth, with chopped green vegetables, will be most suitable. 

FEBICAKDITIS (Inflammation of tbe Fericardixim, 
or Sac surroTinding the Heart). — This disease is more 
frequent in dogs than is usually thought, but one ia seldom called 
to attend cases of heart trouble in the dog, probably from the 
disease not being diagnosed. As a rule, it will be found accompany- 
ing pleurisy and rheumatism, or as the result of direct violence. 
The symptoms are a jerking action of the heart and an intermittent 
pulse ; in fact, if the effusion In the sac is considerable, the sounds 
of the heart will be deadened, or nearly imperceptible. 

The patient must be kept perfectly quiet — usually this will not 
be a difficult matter, as the animal is unwilling to move — and a hot 
Unseed poultice applied three times during the day over the region 
of the heart. As a sedative, give 5gr. to 20gr. of bromide of 
potassium, or ^ to 1 drop of nitrate of amyl. When the more acute 
symptoms have abated, 2gr. to lOgr. of iodide of potassium can be 
given in water twice a day ; and during convalescence, 10 to 60 
drops of Easton's Syrup, twice a day in water after food,! will be 
helpfoL The diet must be light and nourishing, 






PEBIOSTXTIS (Inflammation of the Periosteum, 
the Membrane covering the Bone) is not infrequently met 
with in the dog, and as it usually arises from direct injuries, this is 
hardly to be wondered at. Often it is associated with ostitis (in- 
flammation of the bone proper). Periostitis is a most painful 
disease. The membrane becomes much inflamed, swollen, and 
separated from the bone, while frequently deposits of bone are the 
result, causing permanent lumps (exostoses) ; these are generally 
most unsightly. 

The symptoms of periostitis are heat and swelling of the skin over 
the affected part, with great pain upon manipulation, lameness 
when occurring in a limb, and feverishness. Strict quietude is most 
essential in these cases ; hot flannels should be applied to the part, or 
in severe cases, more benefit will be derived from hot linseed poultices. 
When the heat and swelling have left the part, but lumps are present, 
they should be painted with tincture of iodine, discontinuing this 
latter treatment when the skin becomes sore. 

VETiZHOTSlTlS.—See Bowels, Inflammation of. 

FHABTI7GITXS (Inflammation of the Fharynz) 

Is not a disease which frequently affects the dog, and but few cases 
have come under my immediate notice. I speak of pharyngitis pure 
and simple, and not of inflammation of the pharynx as a result or 
an accompaniment of other diseases. The latter form is common 
enough. True pharyngitis is usually due to some foreign body 
becoming lodged in the pharynx, though I have known it caused by 
the administration of strong drugs, given with the object of curing 
disease. In these cases the stomach suffers also. 

The symptoms are a dry, irritating cough, whUe as time goes on, 
a difficulty in swallowing is observed, the act being performed 
with pain ; the muscles of the throat contract, and upon manipula- 
tion there is pain. Upon opening the mouth, and examining the 
throat, it will be found red and swollen, and if the inflammation is not 
checked, ulceration of the throat will ensue ; or abscesses may form, 
when there wiU be a discharge from the nostrils. 

The treatment is primarily to ascertain the cause, and endeavour 
to remove it. If the condition is due to the presence of foreign matter, 
this latter must be removed, and a hot linseed poultice (kept in 
position by a bandage) applied to the neck. The diet should con- 
sist of milk, egg, and Bovril ; nothLugBjolidlmrist be given. Generally 
this simple treatment will effect a cure ; , but should 'aloeration take 
place, the part must be paintedl ^t4 a weak solufdon of nitrate of 
silver — 2gr, of silver to Joz. of di^tHleld wateA 'This should be 


applied night and morning with a camel-hair brush. If the nlceia' 
tion is severe, and granulations are present, the latter may be touched 
with " London Paste. " This is best applied on the point of a probe, 
around which is rolled a piece of wool. In the event of pharyngeal 
abscesses forming, these must be lanced, and their contents let out. 
When the acute symptoms have subsided, the animal will be left in 
a debiUfcated state, owing to the general constitutional disturbance 
which accompanies the disease. Therefore, tonics should be given, 
such as 2gr. to 8gr. of sulphate of iron, with Jgr. to 2gr. of sulphate 
of quinine, in water, twice a day. 

FEABTITX, ZlTFLAmMATIOlT OT.-See Phakynoitis. 

FILES (Essmorrhoids) occor most frequently in house dogs 
and those too closely confined to the kennel. They depend on an 
enlarged condition of the hsemorrhoidal veins at the lower part of the 
rectum. The parts present an enlarged, swollen, and tender 
appearance, giving pain when touched, or when the dog draws 
himself along the ground. PUes are known as internal or external, 
according as they exist within or without the sphincter muacle. 
that is, the muscle which contracts the orifice of the anus. Th« 
principal causes producing piles ar« the injudicious use ol 
purgative medicintiS, over feeding with stimulating food, and wapt o! 
sufBcient and healthful exercise, producing diseases of the liver, 
constipation of the bowels, with consequent straining, and undue 
distention of the parts in the act of fsecation. 

A dog suffering from piles should be fed on a laxative diet such aa 
broth, well-boiled oatmeal and chopped green vegetables ; little or 
no flesh meat should be given. As a mild aperient a little milk of 
sulphur may be advantageously given in milk or with the food. 
Dose, a heaped-up teaspoonful for a 201b. dog. One of the three 
following ointments should be applied twice a day, smearing the 
parts well with them : 

Ointments for Piles. — Mild mercurial ointment, 7 parts, finely 
powdered camphor, 1 part, well mixed; or the compound gall 
ointment of the Pharmacopoeia may be used. Hazeline is also very 

In bleeding piles the following injection may be used ; Tincture of 
krameria, 2dr. , water to 6oz. Two ounces should be injected twice 
a day ; whUe in aU cases of piles Jdr. to 2dr. of tincture of krameria 
in water, twice a day,^ will be useful 

In some c&sea of piles ,a, tumour forms near the orifice of the 
rectum J it is aj first red, but slilerwarda ibecomes purple, and finally 
diacharges a thick foetid matter mixed with bliKwi. It forms a 


ragged aore, difficult to heaJ from the movementa of the dog in the 
natural act, and from his dragging himself along the ground. 
Similar treatment to that already advised should be pursued, using 
the ointment and washing with the following lotion alternately : 

Wash for Tumour. — Goulard's water, ^ pint; laudanum, ^os. ; 
tincture of arnica, Joz. ; mixed. 

FLSTHOBA (PuU Habit of Body).— Having regard to 
the thoroughly unnatural conditions under which most dogs live, it 
is not surprising to find many the subjects of Plethora. Food ia 
given at irregular times, and often of the most unsuitable descrip- 
tion, and in quantities quite out of proportion to the requirements of 
the animal ; the blood in consequence becomes overcharged, and the 
animal lapses into a generally bloated condition. 

The symptoms are readily recognised. The bloated condition ia 
the most prominent, with the mucous membranes, especially notice- 
able in the eyes, injected, the pulse full and bounding, the dog seems 
unwilling to take exercise, the bowels are irregular (due to indiges- 
tion), wind accumulates and is passed, and the breath is very offen- 
sive. The bowels must be freely moved with medicine, and the food 
given at regular intervals and in reasonable quantities. The 
patient must be brought to exercise giadually, for if violent 
exercise is forced upon him whilst in this condition, a fit wUl often 
result. See also FATNESS, Excessive. 

FLETTItlS'Z'. — See Lungs, litrLAMMATioN oi". 

PNEUMONIA.— /See Ltjngs, Inflammation of. 

POISONING. — Perhaps none of our domestic animals are so 
liable to suffer from the effects of poisonous substances as the dog. 
His restless and inquisitive nature, and that inveterate habit of 
routing in every accessible hole and corner, lay him open to it ; 
whilst the sporting-dog on duty in places where unsportsmanlike 
practices prevail, is exposed to special danger. 

Dog-poisoning is the result of design — when some envious oi 
malicious and cowardly person is the perpetrator — of persons ad- 
ministering to the animals drugs of the nature and action of 
which they are ignorant ; or of accident, which, properly inter- 
preted in most eases means culpable negligence on the part of those 
having to use poisonous substances for the destruction of vermin 
or other purposes. To this last cause the majority of cases of 
poisoning may be traced, as by many of the general public poisons 
are used and left about in a most careless manner. 


Against the malicious poisoner it is difficult to guard, as heing 
rarely forewarned, we cannot be forearmed; against the ignorant 
practices of the empiric the dog-owner can defend himself if he will ; 
while against accidental poisoning much can be done by using 
reasonable care when it is necessary to employ poisons, and by 
keeping them properly labelled and in secure places when not 

It may be of service to some readers to briefly refer to a few of the 
commoner and more popularly known poisons from which our dogs 
are most likely to suffer ; and I think the following will cover the 
majority of cases : Arsenic, cantharides, carbolic acid, corrosive 
subUmate, phosphorus, and strychnine. 

As a general rule for distinguishing between the evidence of 
poisoning and the symptoms of disease, the suddenness of the attack 
must weigh largely ; while by tracing where the dog has been, and 
what he has or is likely to have picked up, a pretty accurate con- 
clusion may be arrived at. 

The first step to be taken in most cases is to freely empty the 
stomach by means of emetics such as tartar emetic, sulphate of ziuc, 
ipecacuanha wine, or, if none of these are at hand, by drenching 
with lukewarm water, and afterwards giving the antidotes indicated, 
if procurable. Under any circumstances, however, give demulcenfa, 
such as boiled flour and milk, starch, gruel, milk and eggs beaten 
up, olive oU, etc., in considerable quantities. A dose of castor oil 
may also be administered, and, if the dog suffer much paia, a dose 
of opium or laudanum every three or four hours. Where great 
depression and weakness follow, stimulants, as ether, wine, or brandy, 
should be given in small quantities at frequent intervals. . 

Arsenic is used in wheat-dressing, as well as to poison rats, 
mice, and other vermin ; in this way it is frequently met with in 
and about country houses. 

Symptoms: Great heat and evident pain in the stomach and 
bowels, sometimes accompanied with swelling — the belly being very 
tender to the touch — great thirst, frequent vomiting and retching, 
more or less discharge of a frothy saliva, and frequent evacuations 
of fluid, dark coloured matter, often marked with blood. The animal 
soon loses muscular power to a great extent, shovring an indisposition 
to move ; the tongue, lips, etc. , are red and swoUen, and the breath- 
ing is more and more laboured and painful. 

Antidotes: Ferrugo or hydiated sesquioxide of iron, 12 parts of 
which combine with 1 part of arsenic, forming an insoluble com- 
pound ; also Eght magnesia, which will remove l-25th its weight of 
arsenic from its solution in water. 

Cantharides (Spanish. Fly). — This is given by ignorant mes 

poiscBfiira. Ill 

for purposes wMch are defeated ; but, being an acrid, irritant poison, 
it produces serious results, frequently causing inflammation of the 
urinary organs. 

Symptoms : Violent thirst, copious discharge of hloody mucus from 
the stomach, mixed with which may be seen the shiny green 
particles of the ' ' flies " ; there are great pains in the loins and bowels, 
swelling and inflammation of the genital organs, and bloody stools 
and urine. 

Antidotes : An emetic should at once be resorted to, the dog should 
afterwards be drenched with demulcents, and a dose of opium given 
every three or four hours. 

Carbolic Acid. — This produces baneful effects, even by absorp- 
tion through the pores of the akin, when too freely used. It causes 
great prostration, with trembling of the whole frame. 

Symptoms: Extraordinai-y depression of the vital powers, general 
shivering and almost constant trembling of the limbs, and a palsied 
motion of the head. Bleeding p t the nose is a frequent symptom, 
and the discharges from the bowels are also often stained with blood ; 
the countenance of the sufferer is expressive of a most helpless and 
painful state. 

Antidotes: The proper treatment consists in placing the dog in a 
warm bath, using friction the while, and administering such stimu- 
lants as ammonia, ether, brandy, etc. , in water or grueL 

Corrosive Sublimate is used for a variety of purposes about 
farms, although for most of these it must be admitted a non- 
poisonous article would answer as well or better. Corrosive sublimate, 
phosphorus, and strychnine each enters into the composition of paste 
and powders largely sold for the destruction of vermin, and it is when 
so used, being placed on bread-and-butter, bits of meat, etc., that 
they are most likely to be picked up by the dog. 

Symptoms : Violent vomiting and purging of stringy and offensive 
matter, the belly is distended and painful to the touch, the urine 
suppressed, cramp and twitches are noticeable in the limbs, and 
frequently paralysis ensues. 

Antidotes: Tartar emetic as an emetic; white of egp, followed 
immediately by infusion of galls ; milk or gluten of wheao. Of the 
chemical antidotes, the albumen of eggs is by far the. best ; the white 
of one egg is sufficient to neutralise or render insoluble 4gr. of solid 
bichloride of mercury. 

Fhosphorns. — Antidotes: Calcined magnesia, with diluents and 
demulcents given in quantity. 

Strychmue. — Symptoms : Acute pain, causing the dog to utter 
sharp cries ; frequent twitchings and jerkings of the head and limbs. 


the fore and hind legs are drawn towards each other, and the back 
is arched ; the fits of cramp and twitcMng are intermittent, but are 
readily brought on by a touch or even a sudden noise. Foaming 
at the mouth is also a frequent symptom. 

Antidotes: An emetic should immediately be given, and afterwards 
butter, lard, or other fat in considerable quantities. 

The subject of poisoning is too abstruse to be dealt with fully 
here. I merely attempt to point out a general line of treatment to 
be adopted till professional aid can be obtained — ^when that is con- 
sidered necessary — and which will tend to alleviate the animal's 
sufferings should it fail in averting fatal consequences. 

FOIJTFI are tumours growing on some mucous membrane, as the 
nose, ear, anus, or, more commonly, the vaginal passage. They are 
attached by a stalk, or pedicel, varying in length and thickness, and 
are smooth, red, and pear-shaped. They also vary in size; when 
small, they are concealed from view, but protrude as they increase 
in growth. They sometimes discharge a mucous matter, slightly 
tinged with blood and are generally offensive in smell. 

The treatment is simple, and consists in their removal by t3ring a 
strong silk thread or piece of fine silver wire round the neck of the 
polypi. This most be tightened daily for a few days, till the neck is 
cut through, and the tumours drop off. They can also be removed 
by an toasenr, an instrument specially made for the purpose. The 
parts should then be bathed freely for a few days with Goulard 
Water. Internal medicines are not required unless feverishness exists, 
when a dose of cooling medicine will be sufficient. 

POT-BEL3JT is a condition peculiar to young puppies. It 
generally occurs whilst sucking, and affects the puniest in the Etter, 
which is probably prevented by weakness from obtaining a fair share 
of nourishment. 

The chief symptom is indicated by the name, but there is also 
wasting of the muscles. Worms may he a cause, and evidently there 
is a weak digestion, and great flatulence. Except in some very valu- 
able strain that there is a strong reason for preserving, such puppies 
do not pay for the trouble of treating. As soon as the pup will lap, 
it should be given lime-water in cow's milk, and fed upon a variety 
of nourishing things given often and in small quantities. 

FOVEBTT OF BLOOB.— <See Anemia. 

PRICES from thorns or any pointed instrument should b« 
ireat'Cd by bathing with warm water, or poulticed. 


FBOl^AFSXTS AST! sometimea occma, bnt oftenest in 
pampered house dogs when getting old, kept too fat, and not having 
much exercise, these together producing constipation and consequent 
straining. When treating, the protnided part shoul'd be cleansed 
and pressed into its place, and cold douches frequently applied to 
it. If the prolapsus recurs, a stitch or two can be inserted. The 
diet must then consist entirely of milk. 


characterised by a soft, red swelling, and generally occurs during, or 
immediately after, the period of heat. It must be carefully washed, 
and gently returned to its place. The following injection should 
then be used for a few days, and one of the powders given twice a 

Injections for Prolapsus. — Tannic acid and glycerine, loz. ; water 
to make a iiint. Or tincture of krameria, 2dr. ; water to make 6oz. 
Two ounces to be injected night and morning with a female syringe. 

Astringent Powders for Prolapsiis. — Take gallic acid, 18gr. ; alum, 
12gr. ; mix, and divide into six equal powders, and give one twice a 
day, first dissolving them in hot water, but allowing them to cool 
before administering. 

Falling of the vagina must not be confounded with inversion of 
the womb, which occasionally happens after pupping, and which can 
only be safely treated by a qualified practitioner. 

FULSE.— 5e« Temperature and Pulse. 

FUBiG-IITG. — This is a symptom in many diseases, but it may 
exist simply from temporary derangement of the stomach, or from 
some irritating substance taken into the intestines, in which cases a 
dose of castor oil and extra attention to diet are all that is necessary. 


called Hydrophobia), has been known for at least two 
thousand years, and probably much longer. It is justly dreaded, 
because incurable, and on account of the havoc it makes in our 
kennels, herds of cattle, flocks of sheep, parks of deer, and all 
domestic animals bitten by infected dogs ; and still more because man 
inoculated by the rabic virus of a mad dog sufiers from the terrible 
disease known popularly as hydrophobia, from a dread of water and 
inability to swallow liquids being a main feature of the malady. 


More accurately, however, the disease in man is known also &.i 

Eveiy age and nation has produced its own crop of phylacteries, 
and the supposed cure for rabies, in nearly e\ery instance, is 
marked by ignorance and the grossest superstition. It would fill 
pages to merely enumerate the absurdities man has resorted to 
for the purpose of preventing and curing rabies. The practice of 
docking the tails of dogs was originally instituted for the purpose j 
while until quite recently (and the practice is not dead yet), it was 
usual to " worm the tongue " — that is, to draw out the tendon under 
the tongue which is used in moving it, and as it curled up on re- 
moval Ignorance called it a worm ; then the heairt and tongue of a 
dog were carried about the person ; and Abracadabra was written as 
many times as there are letters in it, thus ! ABRACADABKA 
ABRACADABR ABRACADAB and so on tiU the last line consists 
of the letter A only, and this worn about the person. These and 
many other equally absurd things have been considered prophy- 
lactics. Among preventives of hydrophobia in persons actually 
bitten by rabid dogs the following are a few of the hundreds in 
vogue one time or another and believed in still ; a hair of the dog that 
bit you ; the liver of the mad dog cooked and eaten ; the root of the 
dog-rose ; the herb called dog's-tooth ; leaves of the dog beny tree ; 
forcible immersion ia cold water till the party was nearly drowned ; 
ashes of river crayfish which had been burnt alive. Of so-called 
cures we have still ia this age of enlightenment the Onnskirk cure, 
Princes nostrum, the Girling cure, Higgs' Hertfordshire cure, and 
numberless others. The people who trade on the credulity of others 
by selling such nostrums should be made to prove their own faith 
and honesty by allowing themselves to be bitten by a mad dog and 
trust to their own nostrum for safety. 

Among the popular fallacies concerning the disease the commonest 
is that it is of spontaneous origin. Nothing is further from the truth; 
rabies can no more be produced in a healthy dog without the germ of 
the disease being communicated to him — which we may say is 
practically only done by the bite of a mad one — than a farmer can 
grow a field of turnips without sowing the seed. That a person 
bitten by a healthy dog wUl become rabid or hydrophobic should 
the dog become mad at some period of its life after having given the 
bite, is as foolish as it would be to say that a person contracted fleas 
from a dog that had no fleas on him, but might be infested with 
them some years afterwards. There are people too who go so far 
aa to say of muzzling dogs, which is the means of preventing the 
spread of rabies adopted by our own and several other Governments, 
that it is " an unnatural, pernicious, and inhuman practice ; a 


senselesa cruelty whioh defeats its own object and manifestly tends 
to create and increase rabies and hydrophobia. " The expressive word 
" rot " is the exact value of such stuff ; for it has force enough in it 
to decay, nothing more. Kabies cannot be created, and it can only 
be propagated by its own seed or germ ; just as mange can only be 
reproduced by transference of the mite which produces it from a 
mangy dog to a healthy one. My own opinion of muzzling is that, 
whilst it cannot be made the means of stamping out rabies, it 
undoubtedly holds it in check. 

It is most important that every dog-owner — and indeed every 
person — should be able to recognise the symptoms of rabies, and I 
here give the description of them, taken from my small work, " Mad 
Dogs and Hydrophobia," to whioh I refer readers for fuller treat- 
ment of the whole subject. 

Altered Demeanour. — Those who keep dogs and care for them 
must be acquainted with the ordinary demeanour and habits of 
these animals. One dog is of a morose disposition, rarely making 
friends with anyone but his naaater, even to him not very demon- 
strative of affection, wliilst another ia most profuse in show of its 
kindly feelings. A change from the ordinaiy state in the exhibition 
and expression of the emotions is one of the very earliest symptoms 
of approaching madness. The dog may display B,n exuberance of 
affection, his natural tendency to jealousy be unusually and notably 
excited, or the lively or loving dog may be dull and fretful, evading 
or resenting the notice and caresses he had formerly seemed to live 
for. Any such change should be a reason for giving extra close 
attention to the animal's conduct. As, however, it might arise from 
other causes, it cannot be taken alone as proof of rabies, but merely 
suggestive and suspicious. 

Appetite. — Very often the appetite fails the dog ; but, as this is a 
common symptom of many ailments, it must only be considered with 

Seeking Retirement. — When madness is coming on a dog, he 
naturally seeks retirement, that he may have rest and quiet. But 
a dog with distemper wiU do the same, and in fact, it is a natural 
action in illness in all animals, man not excepted. More than that, 
it is a habit with some dogs in health, and no doubt an inherited 
one, to seek rest in dark and shaded places, such as under tables, 
beds, behind large furniture, and other quiet places ; but this 
becomes more marked in the incipient stage of rabies, and if 
indulged in more than usual, other symptoms should be looked for. 

AvoidMnce of Light. — One, and probably the immediate cause of 
the retirement referred to is the painftilness caused by strong light, 
for it will be noticed that a dark or shaded place is selected. 

I 2 


Eya Affected. — If the eyes aje carefully looked at, It will he seen 
(if the case is one of rabies) that they have an unnatural gleam, an 
unsteady look, not stupid, but suggesting that the brain is, to some 
slight extent, affected. If the dog is now taken into a strong light, 
he will endeavour to avoid it, as, no doubt, it causes pain. So far, 
the redress from congestion may not have appeared in the eye, nor 
the peculiar squint that so many writers have called attention to, 
but, at a very early stage, the keen observer will detect an anxious 
expression and unsteady look, which give to the dog an uneasy 

Bright and Glistening Ohjeeta. — Closely connected with the fore- 
going is the effect of bright objects, which, although not exciting to 
fuiy, yet show that they annoy. In a pet dog of my own that was 
seized with rabies, the first symptom that aroused my suspicions was 
her darting at the glistening patent leather points on a pair of 
slippers. She did not bite at them savagely, but pounced on them 
and nibbled them. She had seen them on my feet often before with- 
out taking this notice of them, and I thought it strange, as she 
repeated the act several times, although stopping when ordered. 
Soon after, she pounced on the cat, but, being naturally of a vei-y 
jealous disposition, I attributed that act to her just having received 
an extra amount of petting to get her to remain in position to have 
her portrait taken. On examining the eyes, I had a conviction, 
causing an uneasy feeling, that there was an unnatural light ia 
them ; and this opinion was confirmed on closer examination next 
day. Still, the change was not vei-y gieat, nor did this symptom 
develop very rapidly, but it certainly noticeably increased. 1 
mention these, not that they are proofs of rabies by themselves, but 
because their appearance calls for great caution and very close 
watchfulness, and certainly for temporary isolation. 

Temper. — The effect on temper is, in the first stage, great irrita- 
bility, rather than savageness, but it must never be forgotten that 
iadividual cases vary considerably, and any deviation from the ordi- 
nary habits demands from the master the gi'eatest attention and care. 

Snapping at Imagincury Objects. — As clearly showing that the 
brain is affected, the dog may be seen to snap at imaginary objects, 
biting the air in fact, as though he were catching flies, an act which 
it is very apt to be mistaken for, it being a common practice with 
many dogs. During this restless period the poor dog prowls about, 
sniffing about comers, and apparently looking for something. He 
will start forward and snap at some unseen enemy by which he 
appears haunted, and the delusion is constantly repeated. 

Excessive Display of Affection. — Concurrently with all or some oi 
the symptoms, the dog may, impelled by the strong love he feels ioi 

RABtaa, 117 

man, display great fondness, and show it by fawning and licking the 
hands or face of those he knows. This is a habit in the dog which 
should at aU times be discouraged; and to permit it even in the 
earliest, the most incipient, stages of rabies may be fraught with 
terrible consequences. These displays of exuberant affection are 
often intermittent with the periods of gloomy retirement and active 
excitement and irascibility. During these intervals of lucidity, 
nothing seems to ail the dog, and this is apt to induce the owner to 
permit the dog to Uck him ; but even then the saliva on the tongue 
may be laden with virus, and it might easily be absorbed through 
the thin skin of the lips, or where there was any slight cut or 
abrasion. Soon after this display, the affected dog is again under 
the baneful influence, showing itself in the morbid mental effect of 
seeing or pursuing imaginary enemies, and the completely changed 
and abnormal conduct already described. 

Dogs Leaving Some. — During this stage of the disease — this period 
of unrest — the poor dog often wanders from home, and, when we 
consider the irritable state of the brain then existing, it will be 
evident that if hallooed, chevied, and stoned by strangers, the 
cerebral disease will be more quickly developed, and the furious and 
more dangerous stage of madness at once appear. It has been said 
that the dog, knowing the dangerous impulses of the disease, leaves 
home that he may not injure those he loves. It is a pretty fancy, 
begotten of love for the dog ; but we must be thankful for the good 
qualities he really does possess. The impulse to wander is but an 
effect of the disease he cannot escape from. 

Gnawing, Tearing, and Swallowing Inedible Substances. — After 
prowling about, as if ia search of some lost object, the afflicted dog 
begins to gnaw and bite at everything. If he ia confined, he wiU 
worry his chain, or tear the woodwork of his kennel ; when free, 
furniture, carpets, rugs, and curtains, all get torn to shreds. In the 
case I have referred to, the bitch, confined in my writing room, had 
in one night torn into scraps a big pile of newspapers, littering the 
floor with them. Pieces of stone, coal, cinders, wood, rag, and even 
its own excrement as well as that of other animals are swallowed. 

Disposition to Bite. — With the symptoms just described, the dis- 
position to attack and bite other animals, particularly those of its 
own species, increases. 

Pawing at the Throat.— When a dog is seen to do this, as though 
to remove a bone, or as is done in severe canker of the ear, it ia 
evidence of the increasing inflanmiation at the back of the mouth 
and throat, and it is easy to see that a bone is not the cause ; for in 
that case the effort would be unceasing whilst the obstacle remained, 
and the other symptoms described would not be present. 


Saliva, Froth, and Foam. — There may be an increase of saliva, 
but this IB not constant, and the dog does not froth and foam as 
wheui in an epileptic fit, or when under intense fear, excitement, and 
heat from having been chased. 

Sexual Excitement. — It is a common, and often an early symptom, 
for the dog to be nnusuaJly salacious. Any excessive display, there- 
fore, of this passion should excite suspicion; but it is not to be 
taken alone as proving rabies. 

Change in the Voice. — The bark of the rabid dog is hoarse and 
husky, and indeed has a note so peculiar that it indicates the 
disease with great certainty to those who have studied it. It is not, 
however, an early characteristic, nor are the following : 

Fluid Vomited. — In some cases a dark brown, almost blood-like 
fluid is vomited. 

Insensibility to Pain. — Sensibility becomes greatly blunted, so 
that wounds which would make a healthy dog howl, are borne 
apparently without much feeling. 

Paroxysms of Fury. — As the disease progresses, paroxysms of 
rage alternate with periods of quiet from exhaustion, and soon the 
dog becomes paralysed, and dies asphyxiated, unless his sufferings 
have been humanely put an end to. 

Drinking Water. — When first attacked, the dog takes bis water 
much as usual ; but as he is affected by everything that glistens, he 
may start at the gleam of bright water. In the very advanced 
stages, a mad dog will plunge his mouth into water, apparently to 
oool his parched tongue and fauces, for he has lost the power to lap. 
The appetite is, in many instances, so vitiated that, while the 
power remains, the patient will lap at his own urine. 

Obedient to the Last. — Not in the early stage only, but far into, 
and even at, the sad close, the dog, when conscious, answers to 
his master's voice, and obeys his command. This should not, 
however, induce the free handling or encouraging pat, so natural 
to bestow, for, in a moment, the dog may be tmder the sinister 
influence again, and inflict an injury which, if in possession of his 
senses, he would be far from doing. 

Importance of Early Symptoms. — To prevent the dreadful spread 
of this disease, and especially to prevent human beings from the 
horrible sufferings and death a bite from a mad dog may cause, 
dog-owners should make themselves thoroughly acquainted with the 
earlier symptoms, which I have endeavoured to make clear. 

Necessity for Isolation. — Whilst some of the symptoms described, 
taken alone, may indicate a harmless complaint, not one should pass 
without serious notice, and when any two or more are known to be 
present, it is clearly the duty of an owner to isolate the dog in & 

BABISS. 119 

secnia place, supplying him with water and food. In a veiy few 
days the increase in the number and intensity of the symptoms will 
have proved the dog rabid ; or his remaining in the state he first 
was when suspected vnH have shown the symptoms to have indicated 
some other disease. 

Duration of the Disease. — Dogs do not live more than seven or 
eight days when rabies is once actively developed, so that a dog 
isolated for that time, and remaining in a similar state to that 
exhibited when he was first taken, may be considered free from it ; 
but, to allay anxiety, and to secure to the dog proper treatment, a 
veterinary surgeon should always be consulted in such cases. 

A dog suddenly seized with a fit, falling down unconscious, 
ehampuig the jaws, frothing at the mouth, and with the limbs 
and body convulsed, does not show signs of rabies : on the contrary, 
such an attack may he taken as proof that the dog is not mad; yet, 
on such evidence, hundreds of dogs have been done to death with 
all the barbarous cruelty of an ignorant terror. Fits of fuiy are 
expressions of excited passions, and are not early symptoms of 
rabies, although ungovernable paroxysms of rage mark the later 
stages of furious madness. 

When a "mad-dog scare "arises, scores of dogs are kiUed in 
panic fear, and reported as having been rabid. I do not know who 
is responsible for these official or semi-official reports ; but as the 
matter is carried out they do mora harm than good, and increase 
the panic they should allay. The dogs are killed before even a 
competent man can study the symptoms, post-mortem examinations 
are misleading, and no dog should be reported as having been rabid 
until the fact ia proved by the Pasteurian method. I will give one 
case in point. A neighbour asked me to see her pet dog as it was 
ailing. I thought it rabid— kept it twenty-four hours and had my 
opinion confirmed. I sent the body to the Brown Institute — report 
in three days — "post-mortem gives no evidence of dog having been 
rabid." Second report in twenty-four days, after Pasteurian 
method of proof had been carried out — " unmistakable evidence 
that the dog had been rabid." 

One of the most puzzling features of rabies In dogs and man is 
the uncertain period of latency, in which the poison lies inactive 
In the system. In this evil there is some good — it gives time for 
those bitten to undergo the preventive treatment discovered by 
M. Pasteur, and to which some thousands of human beings already 
owe their lives. 

Diuub Madness. — In this form of rabies the lower jaw becomes 
paralysed, so .that the dog cannot bite : but in these cases, equallj 
with those of furious madness, the saUva is tainted with the virus, 


and is capable of reproducing the disease in other dogs or man, U 
absorbed by any means, so that, although the danger is less than 
in furious madness, it is still present. 

BACHITZS. —See Bickets. 

BED MATSGE.—iiee Eczsma. 

BEEtnfflATISM. — This is a very common disease in dogs, 
and one form of it, known as Kennel Lameness, has been already 
described. In lumbago, another form of the disease, the back and 
hindquarters are affected; the dog drags his hind legs, and shows 
evidence of acute pain when tonched, or even when an attempt is 
made to do so. In rheumatism there is always more or less of fever 
present ; the nose is hot and dry, the urine scanty and more highly 
coloured than usual, and generally the bowels are more or less 

In treating a dog for rheumatism, it is imperative that the bowels 
should be at once freely acted on ; and for this purpose the Com- 
pound Fodophyllin Pills will be found most suitable ; or as a sub- 
stitute, should it be inconvenient to obtain the pills, give for a 201b. 
to 301b. dog, 2dr. of Epsom salts, with 20gr. of cream of tartar, as 
a drench, in water. After the bowels have been relieved, give for a 
dog of that size lOgr. of bicarbonate of potash daily. In many cases 
lOgr. to 30gr. of salicylate of soda given in water three times a 
day, act as a specific. If this fail, then 5gr. to 15gr. of benzoic acid, 
made into a piU, should be administered twice a day. A warm 
bath will often give immediate relief from pain, more especially if 
followed by a vigorous application of one or other of the liniments 
ordered for Kbnnel Lameness. 

As rheumatic attacks are generally caused by exposure to wet and 
cold, or more frequently by the dog being placed in a damp, cold, or 
draughty kennel (and especially when warm after a run), pre- 
ventive measures are) to a considerable extent in the hands of the 
master, and should receive due attention. A light diet is advisable 
during the existence of rheumatism, more especially whilst any 
f everishness is present. It should be noted that a dog having once 
suffered from rheumatism in any form should receive special atten- 
tion, as one attack predisposes to subsequent seizures. 

KISS, FBACTUHE OP.— This injury, which is not un- 
common in dogs, is usually due to a kick. The symptoms are pain 
on manipulating the part, the breathing is short, the ribs are more 
or less fixed, and crepitus can be heard if the ear is applied to the 


ribs. The ribs should be bandaged rather tightly, to prevent 
undue expansion of the ohest-walla, and this ■vriU generally effect a 
cure. If, however, the lungs are injured, then such complications 
as pneumonia or pleurisy may arise. A mild aperient is always 

BiICKBTS (Rachitis).— Pups the offspring of an enfeebled 
dam yielding an iusuificient supply of milk, and that of poor quaUty, 
or those which from any cause are iU-fed and neglected, or kept in 
close, ill-ventilated places, without a chance of fresh air and needful 
exercise, suffer from mis-shapen Umbs, thick joints, and other de- 
formities. These are caused by the bones being imperfectly de- 
veloped, the food and other conditions on which the pup is reared not 
yielding the constituents necessary to give them the required hard- 
ness to enable them to perform their proper functions. This con- 
dition is known as rickets, and the cause being plain the treatment 
is evident. 

Continuous consanguineous or in-and-in-breeding should be 
avoided, as one cause of rickets. Do not attempt to rear a pup on 
a weakly, unhealthy mother, but if the breed is desired, procure for 
the pups a foster-mother of undoubted health and stamina. Let 
the nest be ui a warm, aiiy place, and as soon as the pupa are 
able to leave, give them plenty of room, fresh air, warmth and sun- 
shine, and insure thorough cleanliness of the place in which they 
are kept. When old enough to eat, let their diet be light, nourish- 
ing, and digestible, a portion of it flesh, cooked or raw. 

In cases where rickets already exist, attend to the above sugges- 
tions. Let a considerable portion of the diet consist of good milk, 
to which add a little lime-water, say a tablespoonful to every 
quarter pint, and give in the food small doses of cod Uver oil twice a 
day for some months. Phosphate of calcium in doses of lOgr. to 
20gr. twice a day is very useful, as is also Parrish's Chemical Food. 

RUTGWOKiM is due to a vegetable parasite [Tinea tonsurans). 
It appears in circular, scaly patches, and is very contagious. It 
is commonest in dirty, damp kennels, and may be communicated to 
the dog by a child suffering from it. A little of the ointment of 
iodide of iron, rubbed in twice a day ; or yellow oxide of mercury 
15gr., and benzoated lard loz. ; or oleate of copper 1 part and lard 
4 parts, win effect a cure. 

EOTTWD-WOBMS.- Sea Woems. 


ST. VITUS'S DAWCE.--S« Choeba, 

SALZVATIOH'.— Cases of aaliration as the result of the ad- 
ministration of over doses of quack medicine, into the composition of 
which mercury largely enters have occurred. Again mercurial salts 
enter into the composition of many skin dressings, and the mercury 
may become absorbed through the sldn. 

The symptoms of mercurial poisoning are increased salivation, 
swollen and spongy gums, which bleed at the slightest touch, and 
are surrounded with a bluish rim, loose teeth, extremely foetid 
breath, intense thirst, furred tongue, loss of appetite, ulceration, and 
sloughing of the gums. If the dose has been a large one, or 
repeated doses have accumulated in the system, the stomach 
and intestines become involved, causing obstinate vomiting and 
dysentery, the animal rapidly loses flesh, eruptions take place on 
the skin, the hair drops off, the t«eth fall out, and paralysis and 
death follow. The symptoms must be treated as they occur, the 
bowels and kidneys must be operated upon, and the patient's 
strength kept up by stimulants and good food, which in serious cases 
must be forctid upon the animal. 

SAI&COFTXC MANGE.— See Parasites, External. 

SCAItJiS.—iSee Burns. 

SCROFULA is not unknown in dogs, although fortunately it 
is not very prevalent. The subjects are mostly young animals, and 
the disease is due to in-and-in-breeding, and is hereditary. 

The symptoms are a general unhealthy and unthrifty condition, the 
coat never looking sleek or shiny, but invariably dull, while it is 
usually offensive smelling ; the lymphatic glands swell, the eyes have 
a chronic, whitish discharge, and the appetite is irregular ; in fact the 
dog's health is scarcely two days alike. As the animal matures, 
the symptoms become chronic, and the abdomen pendnlous. It is 
scarcely necessary to warn owners against breeding from animals so 

Although scrofula cannot be cured, to keep it ia check, strict 
cleanliness should be observed, both as regards the dog itself and its 
habitation. The animal should be groomed daUy, as this tends te 
produce a healthier action of the skin, have plenty of exercise and 
fresh air, and be frequently washed. Medicinally, 20 to 60 drops 


of iodide of iron should be given in water twice a day. This drug 
has been found very valuable ; Parrish's Chemical Food and cod liver 
oil are also useful. The swollen glands should be dressed with 
tincture of iodine, and the diet must be Uberal and of the best 

SCSiOTAJi IXtBITATION is often met with in dogs, par- 
ticularly in those which have been used constantly for stud purposes. 
The scrotum becomes red, spots make their appearance, and dis- 
charge serum, and the irritation is severe. Finally the part becomes 
swollen and very sore, the discharge dries, and forms scabs, which 
are cast off, leaving sore patches, and gianulations may appear. 

Upon the first appearance of any irritation, bathe the parts with 
warm water, and administer an aperient. After well drying the 
parts, dress night and morning with boracic acid ointment, and 
apply a muzzle to prevent the dog from licking. Where granulations 
exist, touch them with nitrate of silver. This condition will often 
recur, and the treatment must be repeated. 

SCWSiF. — This occurs from want of attention to the skin, but it 
often appears on the ears as a forerunner of canker, in which cases 
wash with warm water, anoint with olive oil, and give the dog a 
dose of physio and a light diet for a day or two. 

MATIOSr or TEE UTEaUS.— This is common in bitches, and 
is the result of retention and putrefaction of a dead foetus (pup), or 
the introduction of putrid matter through the blood stream. The 
symptoms are high fever, the nose and mouth are hot, the pulse 
is quick, the respirations are increased, the eyes are injected, the 
extremities become cold, and often insensibility and death occur. 

If the treatment is to be of any avail, it must be adopted at once. 
First, remove the cause, if possible, inject the uterus with warm, 
weak Condy's Fluid, and give immediately lOgr, to 20gr. of the 
hyposulphite of soda, in water 3 times a day. Oreasote given in 
Igr. to 3gr. doses (made into a pill with crumb of bread), three 
times a day is useful ; salicylate of soda is also recommended in lOgr. 
to 30gr. doses, in water, three times a day. The bowels must be re- 
laxed by means of doses of oil, and Soap and water enemas. The ken- 
nel must be thoroughly cleansed and sanitary, the drains well flushed 
and a good clean bed provided. The patient must have warmth 
with plenty of fresh air. The food must be light, such as beef-tea 
and mutton-broth, with crumbled stale bread. As the animal ap- 
proaches convalescence, Igr. to 2gr. of sulphate of quinine may ba 
given with advantage. 


8PBAI1TS. — By the term "sprain," is meant a sudden, violent 
straining of a tendon or ligament. It may be caused by extreme 
and long-continued exertion, by the dog stepping on something, 
or by his foot getting into a hole when running, causing a twist 
of limb or body from the natural position. There is sudden and 
severe pain, followed by inflammation. The exact seat of the 
injury can be discovered by passing the hand over the back, 
shoulder, or limb which appears to be afleeted. Best is necessary ; 
and it is advisable in these oases to give a cooling aperient, such as 
the Mild Purgative. 

As soon as possible, bathe with water as warm as the dog can beai 
it, and then rub the part with the Liniment for Sprains, Bruises, etc. , 
at least three times a day ; or apply the Cooling Lotion, though that 
requires such constant application, the former treatment is generally 
to be preferred. 

STOMACH, ZNFLAUMATIOir OF (Gastritis).— This 
may be caused by irritants accidentally swallowed, frequently by 
mineral and other poisons thoughtlessly thrown out by housekeepers 
or servants who have used them for exterminating rats, mice, etc. ; 
or by the administration of turpentine in capsules or any other form, 
except combined with an emulcent. Dogs also at times accidentally 
swallow extraordinary things of an irritating nature in their haste 
to devour picked-up garbage, and these produce inflammation. 

The first and principal symptoms for the owner to notice are ex- 
cessive thirst and violent vomiting. In the intervals the dog will 
lie down on his side stretched out, and whine and moan from the 
pain he is suffering. When this is observed, Jgr. to Jgr. of hydro- 
chlorate of cocaine should be administered. 

The general treatment is to keep the dog quite undisturbed. Let 
him have at his command a constant supply of water which has 
been boiled, and give thin mutton-broth, made with Scotch barley, 
adding a little isinglass thereto. Opium to aJlay the pain may 
be given, but cautiously, and the less of any medicine the better. 
Diarrhoea will not unUkely follow, and must be treated as directed 
under that head. 

STTITSTBOEZ!. — In writings on dog diseases I have not seen 
any allusion made to dogs being liable to sunstroke, but I have seen 
cases I consider to be due to such. One, a fox-terrier bitch, in New 
York, which I was called in by a friend to see; her life was 
saved by the application of ice to the head, and sedative treatment 

Some readers will recollect the Burton-on-Trent Show, 1878, 


when during the judging the heat was almost tropical, and this was 
followed by a storm, sudden and short, that nearly carried away the 
tent During the heat a bulldog, I think, aa well as a pug, was 
overpowered by the heat and had fits. The bulldog died. From the 
suddenness of the attack, the stertorous breathing, and quick collapse, 
I thought then and since that it was sunstroke. In such oases the dog 
should be quickly removed to a place as cool, retired, and airy aa 
possible, and ice, or the coldest water obtainable, applied to the hesid. 

SURFEIT.— See Blotch and Eczema. 


TAFEWOBMS.— See Wokms. 

TARTAB. ON THE TEETH.— See Teeth, Dbcatbd. 

TEARS. — See Wounds. 

TEETH. — The dog has, when the set is complete, or in kennel 
parlance, when he " has a full mouth," forty-two teeth, made up of 
twelve incisors, or cutting teeth, four canines, or fangs, and twenty- 
six molars, double or grinding teeth. Some 
of these constitute what are ordinarily called 
the milk-teeth, and are deciduous — that is to 
say, they are after a few months cast, and give 
place to permanent ones. 

Tlie Incisors — six above and six below — form 

the front teeth ; those in the upper jaw are 

the larger, and those both above and below the 

Fio. 20. Puppy's MonTB centre teeth are the smaller, while the outer or 

AT Threb Months. corner cutters are the stronger ; these appear 

at the age of from four to five weeks, and give 

place to the permanent incisors at three or four months. 

The Canines, or Fangs, also make their appearance when the pup is 
from four to six weeks old ; these are replaced by the permanent fangs 
about the age of five to six months. They are considerably elongated 
and pointed ; the upper ones are the stronger. 

The Molars. — Of these, twelve are in the upper jaw, and fourteen 



in the lower. The first (that is, of course the four, two npper and two 
under) are not deciduous, and make their appearance at about three 
or four months ; the second, third in the upper and fourth in the 
lower are, like the incisors and canines, decidaoua, appearing at the 
fourth or fifth week, and giving place to the permanent ones at fire 
to six months ; the fourth in the npper jaw is much the strongest, 

Fio. 21. 

PnppT's MotTTH AT Six 

Fio. 22. Dog's Mouth at Eighteen 

and in the lower jaw the fifth is the largest and strongest. The fifth 
generally appears from the fourth to the fifth month, the sixth at the 
age of from five to six months, and the seventh in the lower jaw from 
five and a half to seven months. Most of the molars, whilst adapted 
for grinding or crushing bones, etc., are terminated by acute lobes 
suitable for tearing flesh. Figs. 20, 21, and 22 represent respectively 
the dog's mouth at three, six, and eighteen months, 

TEETH, SECATED.— It is unfortunately only too true that 
the condition of a dog's teeth does not receive the attention that it 
should ; this is very evident when it is borne in mind that one of the 
most important functions of the teeth is mastication, and that an 
animal cannot maintain good health if it is imperfectly performed. 
Upon sound teeth greatly depends perfect mastication. Before 
assimilation of the food can take place in the stomach, it must he 
received into that organ in a fit condition for the process, and this 
depends upon the condition of the teeth. When the food is not properly 
chewed, it acts as an irritant to the stomach and bowels, causing 
indigestion and diarrbcea, which latter in puppies often proves fataL 


Generally speaking, the teeth do not receive any attention until 
they decay, and cause pain or stomach trouble. Preventative 
measures are in my experience seldom taken, though it is quite as 
necessary for a dog to have clean teeth, as it is for ourselves. 

The teeth especially require attention in the case of dogs which 
are fed upon an unsuitable diet, as they become furred, and finally 
accumulations of tartar exist. To avoid this they should be gone 
over once a day with an ordinary tooth-brush, dipped into weak 
Condy's Fluid. This will not only prevent decay, but also keep 
the breath sweet, a most important matter where the dog is one's 
constant companion. Foetid breath, however, is not always wholly 
due to the teeth, but to indigestion as a result of their condition ; 
at times, too, especially when the teeth are irregular, food accumu- 
lates between them ; this should be removed with the brush. That 
dogs are frequently the subject of toothache cannot be doubted, 
and is clearly shown by the swelling of the cheek, and often by the 
formation of abscesses. All decayed teeth that are past preserving 
should be extracted by a competent person. 

TEMFEBATUIKE AND PULSE. — As indications of 
health or departure from the normal state the temperature and the 
moisture or dryness of the nose — the integument forming the walls 
of the nostrils — are very delicate iadicators, but, if I may say so, 
they tell too much, and are too general, and do not enable us to 
discriminate. When the nose is di-y and hot, we know the dog is out 
of sorts, but we have to search for other symptoms to determine 
what is the matter. The pulse and general temperature are important 
aids to diagnosis far too much neglected. 

The first thing a medical man does when he visits a patient is to 
feel the pulse, and if there is a suspicion of fever of any kind, the 
temperature of the body is carefully taken ; this course, if followed 
with the dog, would assist the owner in treating his animal in all 
inflammatory and febrile cases, such as distemper. 

The pulse in the dog varies from 90 to 100 beats per minute, the 
heart's action being quicker in highly bred, nervous dogs, such as 
some strains of setters and pointers, and some of the finely bred toys. 
For tliis reason the owner should make himself acquainted with the 
pulse and temperature of his dog in health, in order that he may be 
able at once to detect departure from the normal state. The pulse 
can be felt inside the knee, but, especially io small dogs, it is better 
to count the heart-beats. If the left fore leg is held up so that the 
elbow is slightly bent, the point of it will indicate the place where 
the hand should be held flat over it. 

The temperature is gauged by inserting an ordinary clinical 

128 BissASKs or Doas. 

thermometer in the rectum for half a minute, or in the month between 
the lip and teeth, though this latter can only be exercised in a quiet 
subject. Some advocate placing the thermometer under the arm- 
pit ; but the skin there is far too thick to allow of anything like a 
correct registration being arrived at. Temperature of the dog 
normally varies from lOOdeg. to lOldeg. Fahr. 

TESTICXiX!S, ENLABGSI).— When this condition occurs, 
acute pain is, in most cases, present, whUe in others it seems to cause 
but little if any inconvenience. Dogs past the middle age are usually 
the subjects, and obesity predisposes an animal to this condition. 
Dogs, again, which have not been allowed sexual intercourse are 
also affected, whUe it occurs as well in stud animals ; it is also due 
to injuries. In treating these cases, the cause, if ascertainable, must 
be removed. If pain is present, hot fomentations should be applied, 
and an aperient given. Sometimes it is necessary to remove the 

TETANUS.— /See Lockjaw. 

THOKIfS. — These are most likely to pierce the pad, or sole, of 
the foot — in reality, the toes. A thorn should be at once extracted, 
and, if a large one, the foot should be bathed or poulticed, 

TICKS.— iSee Parasites, External. 

TONGUE. INFLAMMATION OF (Glossitis).— Dogs are 

extremely liable to injuries of the tongue, which is not surprising 
when we consider the variety of articles they pick up — sharp pieces 
of bone or stone. In some instances the inflammation is due to a 
sting (I have known one or two cases of this in terriers), while the 
teeth sometimes cause lacerations. 

The symptoms are first an increase of saliva, the jaws are moved 
constantly, and upon examination the tongue is found to be inflamed 
and tender, swallowing is performed with difficulty, thirst is present, 
or at least the animal finds relief in continually lapping, although 
probably not much is swallowed. The mouth should be rinsed out 
frequently throughout the day with a solution of boracic acid (Isor. of 
the acid to 6oz. of water). To do this, hold the head down slightly, pour 
the liquid in one side, and allow it to run out of the other. If a little 
is swallowed, it is of no consequence. A weak solution of Condy's 
Fluid can also be used in the same way with marked benefit. This 
treatment, with an aperient, is usually aU that is necessary. If the 
inflammation is due to injuries caused by the teeth, the latter must 


have attention ; they may require extraction, or filing. The food 
innst consist for a time of warm milk or gravy, with stale bread 
crumbled, and egg and milk to lap. 

TOIfGUE, FABAIiTSIS OP.— This is occasionally seen in 
the dog, and is often congenital. The tongue protrudes from the 
mouth, finally becomes dry, and often cracks. Except for the 
dryness, the animal appears to experience little inconvenience, 
and lapping ia accomplished with ease. If cracks are present, apply 
a little boracic acid ointment, which is non-poisonous ; while a little 
sweet oil to the tongue will often prevent the dryness aJready alluded 
to. A nerve tonic should be administered, and 5 to 20 drops of tino- 
tore of nux vomica, with Jgr. to Igr. of quinine, is an excellent pre- 
paration. It should be given in water twice a day, after food. 

TONQVH, WORMING.— &« Wohminq the Tonguk. 

TUMOTTRS. — These are divided into groups, of varying 
■tructure — Fibrous, Fatty, Calcareous, Melanotic, Osseous, and 

Fibrous Tumours are nsuaJly situated in the jaw or limbs, they 
have a firm attachment and are hard and insensible to the touch. 
Excision is necessaiy. In the centre of these tumours a cyst, or 
cavity, containing serum or matter (pus), often exists, and in con- 
sequence abscesses form upon their surface. 

Fatty Tumours are commonly met -nith in the dog, and have no 
particular position, but occur at any part of the body. They are 
smooth and shiny upon their surface, unattached to the surround- 
ing tissues, they seldom become inflamed, and are not tender when 
touched. The treatment is by excision. 

Calcareous Tumours. — These are common in bitches, and are 
usually situated in the mammary glands. The treatment is by 
excision, external applications being of no avail. 

Melanotic Tumours are seldom seen in canine practice. There 
are a few cases on record, and with them excision has been 

Osseous Tumours are likewise rare in dogs, and when occurring, 
are invariably associated with rickets ; their situation is the limbs. 

Lacteal Tumours have already been fully dealt with under that 

TUBNSIDX!. — In this disease the dog has no fit, but walks 
about apparently without an object, genorally in circles, keeping 
always in one direction. This state will have been preceded by dnl- 
ness and loss of appetite. Youatt, Moore, and others have ascribed 



the diseaee to the presence of hydatids in the brain, but the resnlti 
of more recent study of animal parasites are opposed to this view. 
The cause of tumside is more lilcely to be worms ia the stomach or 
intestines. I therefore recommend that a vermifuge be given, followed 
by an aperient; and that the dog be placed in a room where he 
cannot injure himself by running against things, as he is apt to do, 
his sight being impaired. 

tTLCEBS ON TEE T01T6UZ!. — This painful condition 
when met with in the dog is usually the result of neglect, the teeth 
being allowed to accumulate tartar. The ulcers may be due to rough 
or decayed teeth as well as to a disordered stomach, the latter being 
a frequent cause. In the latter case aperients must be administered, 
and a plain diet be furnished, and in moderate quantities, when, as 
the condition of the stomach improves, the ulcers will disappear. U 
tartar is present, it must be removed by scaling, and the teeth after- 
wards gone over with an ordinary tooth-brush dipped into weak 
Condy's Fluid. Any decayed teeth must be extracted. The ulcer* 
themselves should be lightly touched vnth nitrate of silver. 

UMBILICAL HERNIA.— -See Navel Hehnia. 

UBETEXbAL CALCtTLUS (Stone in the Urinary 

Passage).— iSee Calculi. 



UTERUS, SROFST OP. — This is sometimes observed in 
bitehes which have had several litters, and the condition has often 
been mistaken for pregnancy. The absence, however, of the round 
hard bodies, and the want of tenseness of the abdomen will invari- 
ably guide one in determining the true condition of affairs. 



UTERUS, INVERSION OP. — This sometimes occun 
after pupping, and also from great weakness. The uterus is 
turned inside out, and part of it is seen to protrude at the opening 


of the vagina. It should be returned as gently as possible, and mild 
astringents afterwards injected, but the whole treatment is best left 
to the veterinary surgeon. 

VAGINA, FBOLAFSUS OT.—See Prolapsus or the 

VER'MI.JSI.—See Parasites, External. 

VEBiTIGO, OR DIZZINESS, is frequently the result of a 

too tight and narrow collar, but a deranged liver or disordered stomach 
ivill also cause it. In treatment, first remove the cause ; if due to a 
disordered state of the stomach, give an aperient. 

VOMITING. — There is no domesticated animal in which 
vomiting is so easily excited as in the dog ; in fact, some appear to 
practically vomit at will. Overloading the stomach will freq^uently 
cause vomiting, as also will the presence of worms in that organ, bile, 
and the adimnistration of emetics. The cause must be removed, and 
the effect will cease. If often becomes necessaiy to excite vomiting 
— in cases of poisoning, for instance, and in worms in the stomach. 
When this is the case, ipecacuanha wine is one of the most useful and 
least dangerous agents to employ. The dose is from 3dr. to 8dr. in 
a little warm water ; lOgr. to 30gr. of sulphate of zinc is another 
useful emetic, and has the advantage of operating very quickly, a 
very important fact in cases of poisoning. If neither of these reme- 
dies is at hand, a little mustard and water, or salt and water, or 
greasy water ia useful. 


WARTS are fairly common in the dog and occur on different 
parts of the body — lips, eyelids, ears, mouth— and they may appear 
singly or in clusters. They may be removed by a ligature tied 
tightly round the root, or by a scalpel; the latter is preferable 
The blade is held flat on the skin at the root of the wart, and 
cut through, the raw surface being afterwards cauterised. The 
hot iron or actual cautery, although for the time the most painful, 

E 2 


ia after all, I think, the best and safest. Neither potassBe fusse, nitric 
acid, nor nitrate of silver can be safely used, because it is quite 
evident that the dog's tongue would sweep the injured lip, with the 
consequence that the caustic would be transferred in part to the 
tongue, wliioh would peel in consequence. If used, the jaws must 
be BO tightly bound that the teeth are held together, so that the 
tongue cannot be protruded. 

When the warts grow in clusters, as they often do, the difficulty 
of dealing with them ia greatly increased. The application of bi- 
carbonate of soda slightly damped has in some cases proved effectual. 

WASTING.— -See Debility. 

WATEBY EYES.— iS^ee Weakness in Eyes. 

WEAKNESS IN EYES.— Tears, or watery discharge from 
the eyes, are natnraJ to some breeds of dogs, such as Blenheim and 
King Charles Spaniels, and in that case should not be interfered 
with further than to bathe with an infusion of green tea or the as- 
tringent lotion for weak eyes ; but the weakness may arise from 
slight inflammation, in which case give light diet, a purge if the dog 
is gross and fat, and use the following : 

Lotions for Weak Eyes. — Sulphate of zinc, 12gr. ; laudanum, Joz. ; 
water, 6oz. Bathe &eely. Equally as effectual is a wash made 
with boracic acid, Iscr. ; distilled water, Goz. 

WOUB, FALLING OT.—See Fbolapsus Vagina. 

WOBMING THE TONGUE.— There is a very old standing 
idea still existing in some isolated nooks and muddled brains, that 
a dog has a worm under the tongue, and that the removal of it, called 
"worming," does great good, among other things preventing the 
dog biting, should he ever become mad. The operation consists 
in cutting the bridle of the tongue and pnlling out a small ligament, 
which, by contraction, curls like a worm. It is scarcely necessary to 
say that the operation is as cruel as it is uncalled for, and should be 
sent to the Umbo of obsolete stupidities. 

WOB3SS. — UntU the present century the existence of worms 
was even by men of science attributed to spontaneous generation 
brought about by the influence of heat and fermentation in decay- 
ing organic matter. Gradually the researches of helminthologists 
proved that these creatures sprang from a germ, each having its 
individual mode of reproduction and distinct life-history ; and our 

WORMS. 133 

knowledge on the subject has gone on and goes on at an erer ac- 
celerated pace. Even in such a by-corner of knowledge as the 
parasites of our dogs, progress has begot progress, revelation revela- 
tion, till this little bit of ground teems with marvellous Ufe-his- 
turies of the infinitely small, and soon we may hope to be as familiar 
with eiery creature that lives in or upon the dog as we are with the 
dog himself. But even in dealing with worms in dogs ignorance 
will have its way, and sticks pertinaciously to old notions and 
empiric treatment. 

The worms that infest the dog are exceedingly numerous in their 
varieties; but many fortunately ore rare,' and most of those we are 
best acquainted with are to a considerable extent under our control. 
This country has not hitherto been prolific in investigations in this 
subject, and most of our knowledge comes from abroad. Now, how- 
ever, at our veterinary colleges and elsewhere are many students 
pushing forward from the vantage ground prepared by their pre- 
decessors. To the late Dr. Spencer Cobbold we are indebted for 
much in actual research, and perhaps even more for the impetus he 
gave to the study of this subject. To Mr. George Fleming, so well 
known as a veterinary scientist and by his valuable works, dog- 
owners and others are not a little indebted, more especially for 
publishing a translation of the great work on "Parasites and 
Parasitic Diseases oi Domesticated Animals," by L. G. Neumann, 
Professor at the National Veterinary School of Toulouse. This 
work will prove a boon to students and to non-professional men 
who are interested in an intelligent understanding of dogs and 
all that concerns them. I most strongly recommend its study to 
everyone interested in domestic stock. 

The worms that most concern the dog-ownor are the Tapeworms 
and the Round-worms. Of these there aie many species, but I will 
only dwell on those most commonly met with in English dogs. 

Tapeworms. — These are, as the name radicates, the flat worms 
which are often seen evacuated with the faeces in small sections of 
half an inch or less, when they are usually called "maw-worms"; 
or at times chaias of them may be seen hanging from the anus, when 
being expelled naturally or under the action of medicine. 

No less than a dozen tapeworms select the dog as their host. 
They have a remarkable Ufe-history, and it is as well for the dog- 
owner to know something as to this, as he is often puzzled to think 
how this or that dog became infested. 

It will therefore be well to see how an adult tapeworm is made 
up. If examined, it will be found to consist of a head, or scolex, 
and a series of segments, scientifically known as metameres. These 
latter are constantly being budded off from the head, and assume 


forms varying with their age. Thus those nearest the head are the 
youngest, and those at the other extremity the oldest. It is these 
last which one sees from time to time pass with the fsecal discharges. 
They are, in fact, the ripe segments, or proglottids (Eig. 23), which 
detach themselves from the hind portion, and each portion thus freed 
is endowed with reproductive organs. In time these detached por- 
tions die away, hut the eggs contained in them have heen im- 
pregnated by spermatozoa, and simply await another host to begin 
anew the cycle of existence. The eggs thus scattered broadcast are 
not influenced by extremes of heat or cold, dryness or moisture, nor 
does Time seem to desti-oy their germinating power. From this it 
will readily be seen how important it is to bum all excreta from 
dogs infested with tapeworms. 

In course of time the eggs are swallowed by a suitable host — 
sheep, rabbit, pig, or ox — each of which has its particular form of 
tapeworm. The gastric juices of this intermediary soon dissolve the 
outer covering of the egg, and an embryo, oval in form, and pro- 

FiG. 23. Proglottid, or Eipe Segment op Tapeworm, showing the 
Sexual Organs. 

vided with six bristle-like organs, or stylets, results. By means of 
these the embryo is able to penetrate the tissues of its host, and to 
take up its position in whatever part of the animal's body Nature 
has ordained that it shall flourishT-it may be in the brain of the 
sheep, where it assumes the form of a bladder — becomes encysted 
(Fig. 24). Gradually the stylets, which afforded it the means of 
access, decay, and a circle of hooks is developed, by which the future 
Tapeworm will be enabled to anchor when in its new host. 

Soon a many-headed animal (Fig. 25) develops. A fresh host is 
now necessary to carry on the cycle. In the case of the gid tape- 
worm the sheep dies or is killed, and in due time the cysts are 
swallowed by the dog. Once in the dog the bladder is absorbed, 
and the tapeworm matures. The heads are set free, and the 
creatures having made their way into the intestines, attach them- 
selves thereto, and each one is capable of founding a colony, as it 
were. The head has no mouth, but is provided with sucker-Eke 
processes (Fig. 26), through which the animal derives sustenance. 



These also fulfil a douUe purpose, inasmuch as they are used by 
the tapeworm for attaching itself to its host, and readily accounts 
for the difficulty experienced by dog-owners in expelling that portion 
of the parasite. 

Of the commonest tapeworms affecting the dog the following may 
be named"! 

Tcenia serrata. — This tapeworm, which attains about a yard in 
length, is very frequently met with, and particularly in those 
kennels in which the viscera of rabbits occasionally enter into the 
dietary. The reason for this is not far to seek : the rabbit and the 
hare are intermediaries, as they are termed, and it is in them that 
the parasites pass a portion of their existence, usually termed the 


Section of Gid Tape- 
worm Cyst. 

Fig. 25. Head op Gid Tapeworm as 
found in the cysts. 

larval one, and beyond which no further development takes place in 
that particular animal. In the hare and the rabbit this parasite 
takes up its abode in the peritoneum, and is known by the name of 
Cystiaereus cellulosus. 

Tmnia marginata. — The dog derives this tapeworm from the 
Cystieereus tenuieollis of our sheep and cattle. 

Tcenia ccsnurus. — This parasite grows to a length of 1yd., and 
sometimes more, and in the hydatid or bladder forms develop on 
the brain of the sheep, causing " gid "or " sturdy. " In this stage of 
its existence it is known as Cmnurus cerebralis. Dogs feeding on the 
heads of sheep that have had the "gid' swallow these hydatids and 
in two to three months the tapeworm is again fully developed in 
the dog. 



Tmrda serialis. — A tapeworm about Jyd. to fyd. long when fully 
grown. It is much like Tosnia ccenurus in appearance. Eodents, 
and particularly warren-rabbits, are the intermediary hosts. This 
is not so common in the dog as are some of the other Cestodes. 

TcBiua eehinoeoeaas. — This is the most diminutive of the tape- 
worms : it consists of three or four segments only. Writiilg in 1879, 
Dr. Spencer Cobbold (" Parasites of Man and Animals ") says : " In 
England the Tcmia eehinoeoeeus is excessively rare, and has not been 
seen in any dog which had not been previously subjected to a feed- 
ing experiment. " It has always been common in the dogs of Iceland, 

Fig. 26. Head of Tapeworm, showing Suckeks (after Cobbold). 

Northern Russia, and Siberia, and some years ago, when many 
dogs from northern climes were being imported for fancy and show 
purposes, I ventured to warn the public that we might be importing 
this very dangerous parasite with them. I have repeated that warn- 
ing in regard to the importation of Bussian or Siberian wolfhounds 
or Borzois, and in a most interesting and instructive letter by 
Fred C. Mahon, M.R.O.V.S., Tufnell Park, London, in the 
Veterinary Journal, June, 1892, there is ample proof that my warn- 
ing was necessary. 

WORMS. 187 

Mr. Mahon haa had many Borzois under his professional notice, and 
expelled Ttenia echinoeoceus from them. I recommend a peruaal of 
Mr. Mahon'a article, which space prevents me from reproducing 
here. He finds that tliis tapeworm haa greatly increased iu our 
dogs, and attributes that, first, to the direct Import of infested 
dogs from the countries referred to and North Germany ; secondly, 
to the viscera of imported cattle in which the Echinoeoceus exists in 
cystic form, 8^ it of course will do in our own stock if dogs carrying 
this tapeworm are allowed to roam over paature-land. Not only 
are the herbivora bearers of the hydatid form, called EcMnococaui 
veterinorum, but man also ; and in him it seta up a. verj' serious 
disease. Iu Iceland, parta of North Germany, parts of Bussia, and 
also in Australia the Echinoeoceus is veiy prevalent In dogs and 
other animals, as well as in man. 

I have said enough to show how very serious may be the results 
from importing dogs carrying this tapeworm. Further, I would 
strongly recommend aU who obtain dogs from countries where its 
prevalence is known, to place them at once under the care of a 
veterinary surgeon who has specially studied this branch of hLe 

T(xrda camna {T(Bnia cueumerina of some authors). — This \s one of 
the most abundant tapeworms of the dog, attaining a length vaiy- 
Ing from 10cm. to 40cm. and 3mm. at its greatest breadth. In 
Its larval state it is known as Crvptocystis trichodectes, from the fact 
of the dog-lotise {Trichodectes latue) being one of its intermediaries. 
It has been ascertained that the dog flea QPulex serratioeps'), and also 
the flea that lives on man (_Pulex irritann'). serve as intermediaries of 
this tapeworm. When the ripe segments leave the dog per anus 
they are charged with ova, and possessing the power of motion 
wriggle among the hair, where the Uce and fleas devour the eggs 
and develop into the cryptocysts found by Graasi free in the abdo- 
minal cavity. The dog, again, in searching for his tormentors, 
nibbles and licks his skin and coat, and in this way swallows the 
insect, and when the contained cryptocyst is set fiee in the dog's 
stomach th« tapeworm is once more developed. The nimble flea 
travels so readily from one host to another, carrying thLs tape- 
worm with him, that we have an explanation of what has puzzled 
so many — how a carefully fed and groomed house pet dog becomes 
Infested with tapeworm. Evidently the introducer was the strange 
dog, the neighbour he stopped to fraternise with or lay alongside of 
at the show, that brought him the guest tliat so often " works bim 
mickle woe." This should be a strong incentive to the practical 
adoption of the maxim of John Soott, huntsman to the Albrightos 
Hounds, " not a flea in the kennel." 


X&onnd-Worms. — Several species of Round-worm infest the 
dog, and puppies are very much troubled vtith them. They may be 
found in puppies of even two or three weeks old, though those of two 
cr three months are usually the greatest suflerers. These live in the 
small intestines, and are sometimes ooUed together so as to obstruct 
the passage ; at other times some of them crawl into the stomach 
and may be vomited. The common species of Bound-worm i» 
Asearii marginata; it requires no intermediate host, as the tape- 
worms do, but ia directly developed. Puppies probably get infested 
by the young of those worms voided by the dam. In fact, on this 
hypothesis I have for a long time practised giving the pregnant bitcb 
vermifuges. I believe such a course has prevented many puppies from 
becoming infested with worms. 

Another Round-worm of the dog is Undnaria trigonoeephala, 
which inhabits the intestines, and produces a grave form of ancemia 
with wasting of flesh, great debility, and frequent bleeding at the 
nose. There is another smaller worm resembling this, and often 
found associated with it in the same dog. 

Worms cause great disturbance to the system, producing diseases 
of the stomach, Uver, kidneys, weakness and poverty of blood, 
what kennel-men call untbriftiness in pups, and an irritable state of 
the akin often mistaken for zaauge. It ia tliereforo very important 
to adopt all possible measurus to prevent the propagation of these 
parasites, as well as to free the dog from them when they exist. 

The following list includes most of the anthelmintics or vermifuges 
wtdch destroy or expel worms with which I am acquainted : powdered 
glass, granulated tin, horsehair cut fine, oowhage, or cow-itch. These 
act mechanically, and none of them are very reliabla. Cowhage in 
the best of them ; it should be given in doses of half a teaspoonful 
for a dog 201b. weight, mixed with treacle into a stiff paste, and the 
dose repeated every fourth or fifth morning till three dosea have 
been given. Besides tin in mineral substances, arseuiiS and mercury, 
in the form of calomel, are resorted to for the destruction of worms, 
uid often end in the destruction of the dog. Snch very dangerous 
agents are best left alone. Common salt, too, oomes into the 
mineral class, but as it acts poworfully as an emetic, the only way 
it is likely to reach the worms is when administered as &n enema, 
and in this case care must ht taken not to rise the solution too 
strong ; a teaspoonful of salt to three pints of water is ample. The 
nnleamed are specially given to reason that if a weak dose does 
jl^od a strong one will do more ; but such is not the case, and 
{j^ave results often follow such a practice. 

The Vegetable World furnishes a numerous list of vermifuges, of 
which I may enumerate the following, each having its advocates : 

WORMS. 139 

wormwood, garlic, oowhage (the stiff brown hair that covers the 
podfl of the climbing plant Mueuna prwriens), Barbados tar, Venice 
turpentine, spirit of turpentine, Kousso, Indian pink. Stinking 
Hellebore, santouine (the active principle of worm-seed, Artemisia 
species), areca-nut, also called betel-nut, savin, tobacco, pomegranate 
bark, Male Fern, and kamala. Of these, wormwood, garlic, oow- 
hage, pomegranate bark, and tar, are but little to be depended on. 
The dose of pomegranate is 20gr. to 30gr. of the bark, finely 
powdered, and it may be tried if other remedies have failed. 

Kousso, or Cusso (Brayera anthelmintica), the flowera of a tree 
growing in Abyssinia, and said to have been used by the natives for 
some centuries as an anthelmintic, has been much extolled for tape- 
worms ; it is given as an infusion, Joz. infused in \ pint of boiling 
water, allowed to stand tiU cold, and then strained, forming a dose 
for a large dog. It ifl, however, uncertain in its action, and not 
very safe. The same remarks apply, but with greater force, to 
Indian pink, a United States plant {Spigelia marilandica). Stinking 
Hellebore (Helleboria foetidus), also called Bear's-foot, tobacco, and 
savin {Jumperui Sahina). AU of these should be discarded as very 
unsafe in the hands of those unaccustomed to deal with medicines. 

There remain of our list turpentine and Venice turpentine. The 
first is a good vermifuge, but apt to inflame the kidneys. To prevent 
this an emulsion should be formed by mixing it with the yolk of egg 
and olive oil ; the dose for a 201b. dog is half a teaspoonful. Venice 
turpentine is a milder remedy and it may be given in doses of Jdr., 
Doade into pills with flour or with areca-nut powder. Santonine Ls an 
excellent remedy, and has the advantage of being easily given, tha 
dose for dogs being from Igr. to 5gr.. 

Areca-nut is, perhaps, the most generally useful worm medicine 
we have. The best plan is to buy the nut and grate it freshly aa 
required. In purchasing see that the nuts are sound. If you find 
one light and worm-eaten reject it. It may be given mixed with 
fat or honey or treacle, and placed well back on the tongue ; but if 
freshly mixed with a little savoury broth the dog will generally take 
!t readily. It should not be allowed to stand long in the broth. 
The dose is Igr. for every pound weight of the full grown dog, but 
no dog will require more than 2dr. 

Oil of Male Fern, or, as it ia now called, ethereal extract of Male 
Fern, ia a very effective remedy in tapeworm. It is obtained from 
the roots of Lastrea Filix-mas (Male Shield Fern), and is the most 
convenient form for administering the drug. The powder of the 
root has been used aa an anthelmintic from a very remote period. 
The oil or extract is very irritating, and frequently produces vomit- 
ing. To guard against that, it is advisable, after giving the dose. 


to tie the dog's head up at on angle of 45deg. for an hour. The 
following formula, however, softens greatly its irritating effects, and I 
would recommend it to be kept ready mixed, in a well stoppered 
bottle, and in a cool place ; it will retain its good qualities a long 
time, merely requiring to be well shaken before a dose is measured 

Oil of Male Fern Emulsion for Tapeworm. — Take oil of Male 
Fern, Joz. ; powdered gum acacia, loz. j pure glycerine, loz. ; water 
to make lOoz. It should be mixed by a chembt, who will make a 
much nicer emulsion than a person unaccustomed to dispense could 
do. The dose for a 201b. dog, one dessertspoonful ; for a mastiff, 
two tablespoonfnls. 

Kamala ia a comparatively new remedy against worms in this 
country. It is a product of India, and is a dry, reddish-brown 
powder, obtained from minute glands adhering to the capsules of 
Bottlera tinctoria ; the dose is the same as in the case of aieca-nnt. 
In my own experience I have found it a most useful remedy for both 
Round and Tapeworm. 

There are many remedies more or less reliable, manufactured and 
sold by firms dealing in kennel requisites, and amongst the best are 
Naldire's, Spratt's, Rackham's, Cliamberlin and Smith's, and Heald'a. 

There are general rules to be observed in giving worm medicine 
to dogs. The animal must be prepared for it, as it is of no use 
giving it on a full stomach. A strong and mature dog should be 
kept without food sufficiently long to empty the stomach. With 
young pups, giving the worm medicine in the morning before feed- 
ing generally answers. My practice is to administer a tablespoon- 
ful of oUve oil to the dog in the evening before ^ving the vermifuge ; 
and the worm medicine should always be followed in a few hours by 
a purgative, for which purpose there is nothing better than the Mild 
Purge. Many of the worm medicines advertised have jalap and 
other purgatives combined with the anthelmintics, but that is not a 
good plan. 

Another point to be observed is the repetition of the dose. It is 
in almost all cases needful to repeat worm expellents two or three 
times at intervals of four or five days, or a week, and in every case 
the dog should be kept confined, that the effect may be observed. 
In the case of tapeworm the remedy or remedies selected must be 
persevered with until the head of the worm is expelled, and in all 
cases the worms and all discharged fxces should be burned to prevent 
propagation of the parasites by their ova. 

WOUHrBS. — For the purposes of description these can be divided 
Into Incised, Lacerated, Punctured, and Contused. 

WOUNDS. 141 

Incised Wounds are those caused by a clean cut, such as a sharp- 
edged inBtrument. Lacerated wounds are those in which the 
tissues are torn and the edges of the wound irregular ; punctured 
wounds those caused by stabs or probes ; while contused wounds 
aie those due to crushing and bruising. 

The process of healing is accomplished in different ways, 
according to the nature of the wound, and the condition of the 
surrounding parts. 

1. First intention — that is, by iinmediate reunion of the parts. 

2. Adhesive inflammation, in which there is an exudation of 
lymph in both cut surfaces. 

3. Granulation, where the wound gradually heals by the formation 
of proud flesh. 

4. The union of granulations. 

5. The commoner and more usual method of healing, under a 

In incised wounds the parts should be cleansed, and the bleeding 
arrested, any hair should be removed, and the lips or edges of the 
wound brought into immediate contact by sutures. Where practi- 
cable, the whole should be covered with dry carboUsed tow and a 
bandage. A muzzle must be worn, or the stitches will be torn 
out, causing an unsightly wound that must then heal by granula- 
tion, while instead of a very slight scar, a large one will be the 
result. In adhesive inflammation the mode of treatment is the 
same ; it has, however, been proved beyond doubt, that dry dressings 
are much preferable to any other. The old method of dressing with 
oils, etc., is no longer continued. The commonest method of 
healing is by granulation under a scab as already noted. 

In wounds I have found the carboUsed tow and carbolised gauze 
the most successful. The object of these is to prevent suppuration, 
if possible, by keeping the hair aseptic. Especially is tliis the case 
when one is trying to heal a wound by first intention, or by 
adhesive iaflammation. In other wounds it keeps them healthy. 
The wound must be constantly washed and kept thoroughly clean. 
If it is a serious one, or there is much discharge, it should be dressed 
twice a day. Where proud flesh appears, it should be kept under 
by the application of nitrate of silver ; again if the wound is un- 
healthy-looking, and the healing process is retarded, a slight 
application of nitrate of silver will often stimulate it to healthier 

In all cases where the wounds heal by the process of granulation it 
is absolutely necessary that the repairing process should begin at the 
bottom, and so gradually close the wound. Should it occur at the 
surface, the pus will be imprisoned, burrow between the muscles, and 


find an exit or exits elsewhere in the shape of abscesses ; or the pus 
will form sinuses, which will necessitate making large incisions. 
AU wounds should be examined well for the purpose of detecting the 
presence of foreign matter, and agaia hemorrhage (bleeding) must 
be stopped before suturing. 

In punctured wounds, the wound should be explored by means of 
a silver probe, so that the exact extent of the injury can be ascer- 
tained, and foreign matter remoyc),d. If this latter is overlooked, the 
result ia often blood-poisoning and death. Punctured wounds must 
always heal by granulation ; where there is any suspicion of foreign 
matter, always have recourse to a poultice. 

Contused wounds are generally successfully treated by poulticing 
and fomentations, but if the injury is severe, sloughing may take 
place. The final healing is by granulation. Always bear in mind 
to keep the wound clean. 

To summarise the general treatment of wounds. First stop the 
bleeding, remove the hair and examine for the presence of foreign 
matter, and where this exists remove it. If there is any doubt about 
k, apply a hot poultice night and morning until satisfied that the 
wound is cleansed ; where it is practicable, always insert sutures to 
keep the edges together. 

As I have already said, dry dressings are the most successful, such 
as carbohzed tow, and gauze (Lister's carbolized gauze) with a 
pledget of tow over it, kept in position by a bandage. In some 
situations this is not possible. The wound should be dressed night 
and morning with carbolic lotion : CarboUo acid 1 part, water 
20 parts, with a little glycerine added. Or a saturated solution of 
boracic acid will do equally as well. 

TELLOWS, TSlS,—See Jaitnoice and Distkmfsl 


Anti-Spasmodic Drops 22 

Astringent Anodyne Drops 48 

Anodyne Mixture ... 48 

Bolns for Diabetes ... 47 

Powders for Prolapsus 113 

Blain, Pills for 26 

Blotch, Lotion for 27 

Boils, Ointment for .„ ... 27 

Bolus, Stomacliic 75, 94 

Chorea, Pills for 41 

Compound Podophyllin Pills 59 
Cooling Lotion, Concen- 
trated 57 

Cough Mixture 44 

Distemper Mixture 59 

Electuary for Bronchitis and 

Sore Throat 35 

Eye Lotions 98, 132 

Fever Mixture 24 

Injection for Prolapsus ._ 113 

Jaundice, Mixture for .„ ._ 73 

Lead Liniment _ 68 

Lime-and-Sulphur Lotion... 83 

Liniment for Drying Bitches 82 

Lead 63 

Bheumatism 79 

Sprains, Bruises, &c. 35 

Liniment for Stimulating... 45 

Lotion for Blotch 27 

Cooling 57 

Eye 96, 132 

Lime-and-Sulphur ... 88 

Silver and Zinc 63 

Sore Feet 69 

Mange Ointment 89 

Mercurial Treatment of 

Jaundice 78 

MUd Purge 20 

Mixture, Astringent Ano- 
dyne 48 

Balanitis 106 

Cough 44 

Distemper 59 

Fever 24 

Jaundice 78 

Bheumatism 79 

Tonic 30 

Mouthwash 94 

Nerve Tonic ... ._ .„ .„ ... 129 

Oil of Male Fern Emulsion 140 

Ointment for BoUs 27 

Goitre 72 

Lacteal Tumours ... 82 

Mange ._ „ 89 

PUes „ ._ .„ 108 



Piles, Ointment for 108 

Pilla for Chorea 41 

Cough 23 

Husky Cough 74 

Podophyllin 59 

Tonic 20, 26, 74 

Podophyllin Pilla, Com- 
pound 59 

Purge, Mild 20 

Silrer and Zinc Lotions ... 63 
Simple Tonio ... 60 

Stimulating Liniment ... 



Stomachic Bolus 



Tonio Mixture, Concen- 







Pills 20, 



Pills for Blain ... 




• rt 


Stomachic Pills ... 



Wash for Mouth 



Tumour _ 






London and County 
Printing Works, . . . 


Telbgraus: "Bazaar, London." Telepkoke : 3466 Gerrard. 

Electric Plant. Modern Machinery, Good Materials, 

Experienced Workpeople, Personal Supervision. 






Published by 
L. UPCOTT GILL, Bazaar Buildings, London. 


Brasses 4 

Chubchbs, Old Eno- 

LI8H 5 

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HsaALDRT 10 

Paimtiho, Dbcobatitb 13 
Print Rkstoration „ IS 
VIOUHS _ 18 

Card Qamss .. 4, 5, 6, 11, 


CONjniUMa S, 6,11, 18 


Bntbktainhsnts... 4, 8, 18 


Paperwork IS 

Photoorapht 13,14 

pianoforte 14, 18 


Antiquities, English 2 

AUToaaAPUg„, 3 

Books _ 17 

Coins „.. 6 

Bmoratinos > 8,15 

Epitaphs 8 

Lack, Hand-Made .... 11 

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Old Glass 9 

Postage Stamps 14, 15 

Postmarks 15 

Pottery & Porcelain 15 

War Medals „ _ 18 


Bees 3 

Dairt Farhino 7 

Ego Certificates.... 8 

ooATs , g 

Horses 10 

PI08 14 

POULTRT 11, 15 

Small-Holdings 17 


Alpine Plants 2 

Bulbs .„ 4 



Ferns 8 

Flowers 5, 13, 15 

Fruit 9,10,18 

Oresnhouse Managb- 

hent 10 

Home Oardbning — 9 
Intensive Culture . . 18 

Mushrooms 12 

Open-Aib Gardening 9 
Orchids _ ....„..„.. 12 
Vegetables 18 


Bookbinding 3 

Cabinet Making 4 

Cane Basket Work . . 5 

Carting 5,19 

Forge Work 8 

Olubs AND Cements.. 9 

Ma»(Iueterib 12 

Metal Working 8, 17 

Model Yachts 12 

Picture Frame Mak- 
ing 14 

Poker Work 14 

Polbhes and Stains 14 

Print Ekstobation . . 15 

Ticket Writing 19 

Violins, Eepairing .. 18 
Workshop Hake- 
shifts 19 


Cookery 2,6 

Infant Feeding 3 


Crichton, The 

Admirable 6 

Journalism 11, 16 

Parcel Post Dispatch 

Book 13 



Aquarium..... 5 

buiierfues 4 

Draqonflies 7 

Moths 4, 10 


Taxidermy 17 

VlTARIUM _ 11, 18 


Birds S, 4, 5, 13 

Cats „ 5 

Caties, or Guinea 

Pigs S 

Dooa.. 6,7, 8, 10, 17, 18, 19 

Mice . „_ 12 

Monkeys 12 

Pigeons 14 

Babbits 16 


Angling 2,16 

Boating 3,15,19 

Boxing 3 

Ferreting 8 

Game Preser riNG 9 

Golfing 9 

LawnTennis 11 

Motoring 12 

Sailing 16, 19 

SeaTerms 17 

Shooting 2,17,19 

Skating 17 

Swimming 17 

Trapping 18 

Wildpowlino 19 

Wrestling... U, 19 


Caravaning 5 

Friesland Meres „ ,. 8 

Motoring „ 12 

Route Map 12 

Sailing Tours 16 

Welsh Mountaineer- 
ing __ 12 


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Air-Gunner, The Complete. 

A sound practical book on home culture in Rifle Shooting by means of the Air- 
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Alpine Plants. 

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American Dainties. 

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Angler, The Book of the All-Round. 

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Bees and Bee-Keeping. 

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Brasses. E^nglish Church, 

Of the 15th to the 17th centuries. A fine volume of the greatest value to Anti- 
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Bridge, How to Win at. 

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Bulb Culture, Popular. 

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Bunkum Entertainments. 

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Butterflies, The Book of British. 

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Cage Birds, Notes on. 

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Carnation Culture for Amateurs. 

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Chrysanthemum, The Show. 

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Coins of Great Britain and Ireland, A Guide to the. 

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Collie, The. 

As a Show Dog, Companion and Worker. A practical book on its History, 
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Confuring, The Book of Modern. 

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Crichton, the Admirable. 

the Accomplishments and real Character of James Crichton (1560-1582). By 
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Cyclists' Route Map of England a.nd Wales. See under 
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Dairy Farming, Modern. 

4. practical handbook on the Points and Treatment of the Milch C0T7; the 
profitable utilization of Milk, including the making ot Butter and Cheeses ; and 
the General ManaKement of the Dairy Farm By H. L. PUXLET. With 8 full- 
pags Plates, and other illustrations. 

In waterproof rexin^t gUt, price 3/6, by pott iJlO. 

Designing. Harmonic and Keyboard. 

Explaining how an endless Variety of Designs suited to numberless Manufactures 
may be obtained by unskilled persons from any printed Music. Illustrated. 
By C. H. Wilkinson. j^^^^ (jj^_ .^ ^^^j^ ^^^^^ ^^ jg^_^ j^ p^^j ^0^^ 

Diabolo. The Game and its " Tricks." 

Including instructions on Sleights as practised on the Continent, and on Tennis 
Court Play. By David P. Ward. Illustrated. 

In paper, price 1/-, ty poat 1/2. 

Dogs, Breaking and Training. 

The well-known work on the proper Education of Dogs, both for the Field and as 
Companions. A complete book, invaluable to all who keep Dogs for Sport, on 
Farms or at Home. By "Pathfinder" and Hugh Dalzibl (Author of " British 
Dogs," "Diseases of Dogs," &c), revised by J. Maxteb (Author of "The Grey- 
hound," " British Terriers," &c.). "Well illustrated. 

Third edition, enlarged; in waterproof material, gilt, price b/b, by post 6/10. 

Dogs, British. 

A Splendid Work in Two Volumes. Complete and Thoroughly Practical. By 
W. D. Druby, assisted by Specialists. Beautifully Dlustrated. 

Demy Svo, cloth gilt, each volume price lib, by pout 8/-. 
Vol. I. The Various Breeds : The points. Selection, Special Training 
and Management of all the Dogs ordinarily kept in this Country. 

Third edition. 
Vol.11. Kennel Management: The Physiology of the Dog ; its Breed- 
ing, Management, and Training for the Show- Bench, Field, or as Companion ; 
its Diseases, their Causes and Treatment. 

Dogs, Diseases of. 

A very practical handbook which every Dog-owner should have at hand. Describes 
clearly their Causes, Symptoms and Treatment; how to administer medicines; 
Treatment in cases of Poisoning, &c. By Hugh Dalzibl ; brought up-to-date by 
Alex. C. Piesse, M.R.C.V.S. Illustrated. 

Fourth edition; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2 ; 
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Dotfs. First Aid to. and Kennel E:mers[encies. 

The treatment in cases of Poison, Diseases and Accidents ; with valuable chapters 
on the Mother and Puppies, &c. By W. Gordon Stables, B.N., M.D., &o. 

In doth, price Ijb, by post 1/9. 

Dog-Keeping. Popular. 

A practical and handy guide to the general Management and Training of all kinds 
of Dogs for Companions and Pets ; including the Choice of a Breed, Housing, 
Feeding, Teaching Tricks, and Treatment of Diseases and Parasites. By J. 
Maxteb (Author of "British Terriers," Editor of new editions of " British Dogs," 
" The Greyhound," &o.). Well illustrated. 

Third edition ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Dragonflies, British: 

An exhaustive treatise on our native Odonata. A beautiful book on the Life- 
History, Species and Varieties, Capture and Preservation, of our British Dragon- 
flies. Splendidly illustrated with 27 exquisitely printed Plates in Colour, and 
other engravings in the text. By W. J. Lucas, B. a. , P.E.S. 

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Egg and Poultry Raising. See "Poultry and Egg Raising." 

All Books are Net. 

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Eggs Certificates, Fertility of. 

These are Forms of Guarantee giTen by the Sellers to the Buyers of Eggs for 
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them with goed ones. Very valuable to sellers of Eggs, as they induce purchasers. 

In books wUh counterfoils^ 6d., by pott Id. 

Engravings and their Value. 

A valuable work for the Collector. Describing the different types of Engravings 
and their production, with a dictionary of the greatest Engravers and their more 
important works, with prices obtained at auction. Illustrated with facsimile 
reproductions of Engravers' Marks, and with Plates. By 3. H. Slater. In one 
volume. Fourth edition, entirely revised ; 

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EntfrCLVings. See alto " Print Restoration and Picture Cleaning." 


A collection of 1300 Epitaphs, grave and gay, historical and curious ; with Bio- 
grapliical notes. Anecdotes and Church Folk-lore. A most interesting volume — 
the largest on the subject ever written. By E. R. Sufflinq. 

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Ferns, Choice, for Amateurs. 

Their culture and management in the open and under glass. Dealing with the 
characteristics, propagation, culture and enemies of Ferns in general ; and 
describing, with cultural notes, over 500 species and varieties. By George 
SCHNEifiER, F.R.H.S. Well illustrated. /„ cloth gilt, price 3/6, lypost 3A0. 

Ferns, The Book of Choice. 

For the Garden, Conservatory and Stove, The Standard Work, describing the 
best and most striking Ferns and Selaginellse, and giving explicit directions for 
their Cultivation, the formation of Rockeries and Ferneries, &c. By George 
Schneider, F.R.H.S. With 87 coloured and other Plates, and nearly 400 other 

Large poet tto, in cloth gilt, in 3 volumes, price £3 3, carriage paid £3 4 6. 

Ferrets and Ferreting, 

Containing practical directions for the Breeding, Managing, Training and 
Working of Ferrets. By W. Carnegie (Author of " Practical Trapping," "Pract- 
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Fourth edition, revised and enlarged ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Forge Work, Simple. 

A practical handbook in the Blacksmith's Art, for Amateurs and others ; showing 
what it is easily possible for an Amateur with average facilities to do, and how to 
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" Chucks and Chucking," ' ' Glues and Cements," Ac). Illustrated. 

In paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Fortune Telling by Cards. 
A very popular book, describing and illustrating the various methods by which the 
would-he Occult tells Fortunes by Cards. By I. B. Prangley. Illustrated. 

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Fox Terrier, The 
and all about it. The History, Varieties, Breeding, Bearing and Management of this, 
the most popular of all dogs, and its Preparation for Exhibition, with a chapter 
on the Sealyham Terrier. By Hugh Dalziel (Author of "British Dogs " Ac ) 
revised throughout by J. Maxtee (Author of "Popular Dog Keeping,'" "British 
Terriers, " &c.). Ful^ illustrated. Third edition ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Friesland Meres, A Cruise on the. 

Indicating the possibilities of Friesland for a holiday combining the pleasures 
of the Norfolk Broads with the attractions of a foreign country. By Ernest E 
SUFFLINO. Illustrated. In paper, pricei/., by post \/i 

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Fruit Cullure. 

A thoroughly praetical handbook for Amateurs on the growing of Fruits in the 
Open Air ; with directions tor dealing with Insect Pests and Fungoid Dis>-ase8. 
By S. T. Wkigbt, revised by W. D. DRURT, F.R.H.S., F.E.S. Excellently illus- 
trated. Third ecl/Uion, completely revised ; in papey, pHoe 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Fruit and Vegetables: French Intensive Culture. 

Furniture. Old English &. und«r ■Vegetables. " 

of the 16tli, 17ih, and 18ih centuiies. A most valuable and practical work for 
Connoisaeurs and OoUectorH. magnificently illustrated with some 200 examples of 
repr«t«entatiTe pieces. Contains probably the finest exposiilon of "Chippendale " 
ever written. By G. Owen Whkelbr. Second and enlarged edition; 

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Game Preserving. Practical. 

A thoroughly practical guide, giving complete information on the Rearing and 
Preservatien of Pheasants, Partridges, Grouse, Duck, all other winged Game, and 
Hares, Rabbits, 4c. ; their protection against Vermin and Poachers ; and other 
matters of real importance to the Game-Preserver. By William Carnegie. 
Illustrated with excellent full-page Plates, Third edition, rmised and enlarged ; 
in waterproof n.^terial, gilt, price 7/6, by post 7/10. 

Gardening, Home. 

Containing full instructions for the laying-out, stocking, cultivation and manage- 
ment of small gardens — Flower, Fruit and Vegetable. A very handy guide for the 
Amateur. By W. D. Druky, P.E.H.S., F.E.S. Well illustrated. 

Second edition ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Gardening, Open-Air. 

An excellent and complete book on the culture of hardy Flowers, Fruit and 
Vegetables. By Specialists, and edited by W. D. DRURY, F,E.H.S., F.E.S. Over 
400 pages, and containing 240 illustrations. 

Demy Svo., in cloth gilt, price 6/-, by post 6/5. 

Glass. Early English. 

Of the I6th, 17th and 18th centuries. A practical handbook for the Collector, 
splendidly illustrated, and with a valuable list of auction prices for typical pieces. 
By Daisy Wilube. Second edition ; full crown qvo., in doth gilt, gilt top, 

price 6/6, by post 6/10. 

Glues and Cen\ents : 

Becipes for Adhesives, Cements and Fillings suitable for everyday Workshop Op- 
erations, and their proper Use. An invaluable handbook which should be in every 
Workshop. By H. J. S. Cassal (author of " Workshop Makeshifts," Ac, 40.) 
Illustrated. In paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Goat. The Book of the. 

The recognised standard book on the subject, by H. S. Holmes Pegler, Hon. 

Secretary of the British Goat Society. A complete work containing full particulars 

of the various Breeds of Goats and their Profitable Management. Well illustrated. 

Fourth edition, completely revised ; in waterproof material, price 6/-, by post bj^. 

Goat-Keeping for Amateurs. 

Describing the Selection, Breeding, and Practical Management of Goats for Milk- 
ing purposes ; with a chapter on the Prevention and Treatment of some Diseases. 
By H. s. Holmes Peoler (Hon. Sec. B.G.S., Author of "The Book of the Goat." 
Illustrated. Second edition ; in paper price 1/-, by post 1/2, 

Golf Swing. The Simplicity of the. 

Explaining that important point — the secret of free and comfortable action— with 
suggestions for putting the idea into practice. A handy little book, the right size 
for the pocket. By " A. P. Layer." F'capSvo, in cloth, price ll;iy post 112. 

All Books are Net. 

10 Published by L. Upcott Gill, 

Grape Growing for Amateurs. 

A thoroughly practical book on successful Vine Culture ; with lists of varieties, d» 
tails of management, and treatment for pests and diseases. By B, Molykeux, 
V.IM.H. Illustrated. In paper, price 1/-, by post IjZ 

Greenhouse Management for An\ateurs. 

A full and practical guide giving just the information desired on Greenhouses ana 
Frames, the best Plants, with general and special cultural directions, and all other 
necessary information. By w! J. May. With 150 illustrations in the text or as 
plates. ii'i/tA edition, revised ; large post 8m, in cloth gilt, price 5/-, by post 6/5. 

Greyhound, The. 

Its History, Points, Breeding, Rearing, Training and Running, with a chapter on 
Common Diseases and Parasites. By Hugh Dalziel ; revised throughout by J. 
MAXTEE(author of "British Terriers," <fto.), with the assistance ofT. Beaumont 
RixON, the well known Trainer and Runner. Illustrated. 

Second edition ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Guinea Pigs. See "Gavles or Guinea Pigs." 

Handwriting, Character Indicated by 

A practical treatise, showing how Personality is reflected in, and may be " read" 
from, the characteristics of Handwriting; with illustrations taken from autograph 
letters of Statesmen, Lawyers, SoltUers, Ecclesiastics, Authors, Muf^icians, 
Actors, and other persons. By ROSA Baughan. 

Second edition, revised ; in cloth gilt, price 2/6, by post 2/S. 

Hawk Moths, The Book of British. 

Collecting, Breeding, and preparing for the Cabinet specimens of the Sphingidce — 
the most noble and interesting of all our Moths. With detailed descriptions of all 
the species. Copiously illustrated from the Author's own exquisite drawings from 
Nature. By W. J. Lucas, B.A. (Author of "Book of British Butterflies." 
"British Dragonflies," Ac). /„ doth gilt, price 3/6, by post 3/ip. 

Heraldry for Amateurs, 

A practical guide for Beginners, and a handy reference book for others. With a 
"Dictionary of Terms," and concise directions for the tracing of Pedigrees. By 
J. S. MiLBOURNE. Profusely illustrated. j„ doth gilt, price 3/6, by post 3/10. 

Horse Buying and Management. 

A practical handbook for the guidance of Amateurs in Buying a Horse — describing 
what to look for and what to avoid — with instructions as to Feeding and Groom- 
ing a Horse, and its management generally. By Henry E. Fawcus. Illustrated. 

In paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Horse-Keeper, The Practical. 

A complete guide to all who have to do with Horses, vihether ob Owners, Pur- 
chasers, Breeders, Trainers, Managers, or Attendants. By George Fleming, 
C.B., LL.D., F.R.C.V.S., late Principal Veterinary Surgeon of the British Army, and 
ex-President of the E.C.V.S. Illustrated with Full-page Plates. 

In waterproof material, gilt, price 3/6, by post 3/10. 

Horse-Keeping for Amateurs. 

A practical manual on the Management of Horses, for the guidance of those who 
keep one or two for their personal use. Written from twenty years practical— not 
merely theoretical— experience, by Fox Russell. 

In paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2 ; 
Also in waterproof material, gilt, price 2/-, by post 2/3. 

Horses, The Diseases of. 

And their Treatment ; with a Dictionary of Equine " Materia Medioa." A ver J 
valuable book to have at hand ; for the use of Amateurs. By Hugh Dalziel. 
revised by Alex. 0. Piesse, M.R.C.V.S. 

Second edUion, revised throughout ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2 ; 
Also in waterproof material, gilt, price 2/-, by post 2/3. 

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Incubators and their Management. 

A very practical book, brought right up to date, and giving just that information 
which IS required by an Amateur running or proposing to run an Incubator. 
By J. H. Shtcliffe (Author of " Profitable Poultry Farming," &c.). Thoroughly 
illustrated. Seventh edition, completely revised ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Intensive Culture of Ve^eta-bles. See under "Vegetables." 


And other Methods of Self -Defence. An admirably clear exposition of the most 
effective methods of defence against bodily assault comprised in the Japanese art 
of Jiu-Jitsu. With a section specially adapted for Ladies. By Percy Long- 
HUR.ST (Author of " Wrestling.") Profusely illustrated from photographs. 

In paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

JournoLlism, PraLCticsLl. 

How to enter thereon and succeed. With details of Literary Remuneration, Hints 
on Proof Correction, &c. A book addressed to Literary Beginners. By John 
Dawson. Seeond edition ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Kennel Ma.i\aLgement, Pra.ctica.1. 

Comprising Vol. II. of "British Boga," (g.v.) 

LaLce, A History of HaLnd-Ma-de. 

The origin, manufacture and care of Lace, the Growth of the great Lace Centres, 
and the methods of Distinguishing the various kinds. By Mrs. F. Nevill 
Jackson. Exquisitely illustrated with 19 Plates and over 200 Engravings of 
Lacea and their application to Dress. 

Crown Uto, in cloth gUt, price 18/-, by post 18/6. 
Edition de Luxe, on large paper, containing 12 specimens of Heal Lace— a 
splendid volnme. In/ull leather, gilt, price £4 4 0, by post £4 6 0. 

La^wn Tennis, Lessons in. 

A new method of study and practice for acquiring a good and sound style of play. 
A book for the Average Player, and, above all, for beginners. By Eustace H. 
Miles, M.A. Illuatrated. Third edition, revised; inpaper, price Ij-, by post IjZ, 

LaLying Hens, How to Keep. 

And to rear Chickens, in large or small numbers, in absolute confinement, with 
perfect success. By Major G. F. MORANI. A clear exposition of a practical 
scheme of management. In paper, price bd., by post Id. 

LizaLrds. British. 

A splendid book on the Structure, Varieties, and Life history of all Lizards found 
in the British Isles, and their Local Distribution. Very well illustrated with 28 
full-page Plates from photographs by Douglas English and others. By Gerald 
E. Leighton, M.D., F.E.S.E. (Author of "British Serpents," Ac). 

In cloth gilt, price 5/-, by post 5/3. 

MagiciaLns' Tricks: How they aLre Done. 

A practical and up-to-date work on Tricks with Cards, Coins, Balls and Eggs, 
Handkerchiefs, Ac, with a number of Miscellaneous Tricks. By Henry 
Hatton and Adrian Plate. With 200 illustrations. 

Large post Zvo, in cloth, price 4/6, by post 4/10. 


Including Manx-Bridge, and Manx-Auction-Bridgb. All about the new Card 
Game, its Enles, Play and adaptation to other Card Games. Edited by E. H. M. 
Harvey, under authority of the Originator of Manx. 

Feap Zvo ; in paper, pricel/-, ty post 1/1. 

All Books are Net. 

12 Published by L. Upcott Gill, 

Marqueterie Staining. 

Including Vernis Martin, Certoaina, Oil and Water Gilding, Polishing and Var- 
nishing ; descriptions of all Tools rec^uired and their use. By L. V. Fitzgerald. 
lUuscrated with coloured plates, besides numerous engravings of Designs, &c., in 
the text. Second edition, enlarged; demy Bvo, in paper, price 1/-, by pout 1/2. 

Ma.rqueteri© Wood-Sla.ining for AinaLteurs. 

A practical guide to the very pretty art of Wood-staining in imitation of Inlay. 
A. handy book, clearly written. By Eliza Turck. Profnseiy illustrated. 

In paper, price 1/-, by poet 1/2. 

Mice, FoLivcy, 

Their Varieties, Breeding and Management. An excellent book for all who keep 
Mice as Pets or for Exhibition. Containing the latest scientific information as to 
Breeding for Colour. New edition by C. J. Daties. 

Fifth edition, rewritten; in paper, pricelj-, by post 1/2. 

Model YsLchts a^nd Boa.ts. 

A thoroughly practical book on the Theories and Practice of Designing, Building 
and Sailing Model Boats. By J. Da V. Geostenor. With about 120 illustrations 
of Designs and Working Diagrams. /„ cloth gilt, price 2/6, by post 2/9. 

Monkeys, Pet. 

The Choice and Purchase of a Monkey, Cages and their Fittings, Feeding, and 
their General Management under all conditions ; with a cliapter on tbe Monkey 
Ailments. By AaTBun H. Patterson, A.M.B.A. Fully illustrated. 

Second, edition, revised ', in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Motorist's ».nd Cyclist's Route Ma.p 

of England and Wales. Shows clearly all the Main, and most of the Cross Boads, 
Bailroads, and the Distances between the Chief Towns, as well as the Mileage 
from London. In addition to this. Routes ef Thirty of the Most Interesting Tours 
are printed in red. The map is printed on specially prepared vellum paper, and Is 
the fullest, handiest, and best tonrist's map on the market. 

Fourth edition ; in doth, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Motor Tourists' A.B.C., Tho British. 

A revised edition of this well-known Road-Book ; with an alphabetical list of the 
Towns and Villages of Great Britain and Irelamd, -showing principal Hotels, 
Bepairers, &e. With 50 specially-prepared Maps. 

In cloth, or wttterproof rexine, price 11-, by post 1/3 ; 
In leather, gilt, gilt edges, price 5/-, by post 5/3. 

MountSLineerin^, Welsh. 

A simple and practical guide to the whole of the Welsh Mountains en the lesser 
known routes amongst which the scenery is often as magnificent as in Switzerland. 
ByALSX. W. Perry. With numerous Maps. 

Small post Bvo, in cloth gilt, price 2/6, by pott 2/9. 

Mushroom Culture. 

The successful growing of Mushrooms in Houses, Sheds, Cellars and Boxes, as 
well as in Beds in the open. A useful book on a neglected but easily-raised 
Vegetable. By W. J. May. Illustrated. 

Second edition, revised ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Orchids: Their Culture a.nd\ent. 

A handsome and essentially practical volume, of the greatest value to the 
grower. Containing detailed cultural directions, with lists of Hybrids and 
{heir recorded parentage. By W. Watson, revised by Henry J. Chapman, one at 
the finest growers and judges in the Kingdom. Beautifully Illustrated with 180 
engravings and 20 coloured plates. Third edition, revised a/nd enlarged ; 

Full demy Sm, in doth gilt, gilt top, price 25/-, by post 25/6. 

All Books mre Net. 

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PoLlnting, Decorative. 

Describing how to Faint and Etoh upon Textiles, Pottery and Porcelain, Paper, 
Vellum and Leatlier, Glass, Wood, Stone, Metals and Piaster for DecoratiTe 
purposei. By B. C. Sawabd. Uluatrated. /„ Ooth gilt, price 3/6, ty post 3/10. 

PoLlmistry, Modern. 

An explanation of the Prinoiples of Palmistry as practised to-day, describing the 
•igniflcancles of Markings, and how to " read " Hands. By I. Oxenford (Author 
of " life Studies in Palmistry "). With numerous illustrations by L. Wilkins. 

Second edition ; in paper, price 1/-, iy post 1/2. 

Pa-per Work, Instructive a-nd OrnaLn\entaLl. 

A practical book on Paper Flo»Ter Making for decoration er as an aid to Nature 
Study. Consisting of a graduated course of Paper Folding and Gutting as an 
instructive and pleasant occupation for Children of all ages. By Mrs. L. Walkek 
(Head Teacher, L.C.C. School.) Fully Illustrated throughout. 

About crovm 4£o, in cloth gilt, price 3/6, by post 3/10. 

Pa-rcel Post DispoLtch Book (regiattred). 
An invaluable book for all who send Parcels by Post. Authorised by the Post 
Office. Provides 99 Gummed Address Labels, Certificates of Posting, and 
Records of Parcels dispatched. Larger Books supplied by arrangement, where 
the Sender holds a Certificate of Posting he may, under certain restrictions, 
obtain compensation from the G.P.O. up to £2 for loss or damage to the parcel. 

Price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

PaLrra.keets, Populatr. 

An excellent manual, describing the chief species and their breeding and manage- 
ment by Amateurs. By W. T. Greene, M.A., M.D., F.Z.S., Ac. (Author of 
"Favourite Foreign Birds," "Diseases of Cage Birds," &c.). With 8 full-page 
Plates and other illustrations. in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

PeLrrot, The Grey. 

And how to Manage it. Dencribing Its Life in the Wild state, and its Cages, 
Feeding and Diseases In Captivity. By W. T. GREENE, M.A.,, &c. (Author 
of " Favourite Foreign Birds," " Popular Parrakeets," Ac). 

Second edition ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Pa.tience, GaLmes of. 

A justly popular book, with illustrated descriptions of 173 different games for one 
or more players. By M. Whitmore Jones, Series I., 39 games ; Series II., 34 
games ; Series III., 33 games ; Series IV., 37 games ; Series v., 30 games. 

Each, in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2, 
The five hound together in one volume, in cloth gilt, price bj-, by post 6/4, 

PsLtience, New Gatnies of. 

Describing and illustrating with great clearness Forty-five of the best and newest 
Games not included in the above work. By M. "Whitmore Jones (Author of 
"Games of Patience.") Full demy Qvo, in cloth gilt, price 3/6, by post 3/9. 

Perennia-ls, Hatrdy, atnd Old-Fa-shioned Gairden 
Flowers. Describing, with full practical cultural directions, over 270 
desirable plants for Borders, Bockeries and Shrubberies— both for Foliage and 
Flowers— and including all the favourite old-world perennials. By J. Wood. 
Profusely illustrated. In cloth gilt, price 3/6, by post 3/10. 

Photo Printing. 

Describing fully most of the Papers and pitKesaea now In use ; the leading varieties 
of P.O.P. (Gelatino-Chloride, Collodio-Chloride, Albumenised, Self-toning Papers, 
&e.). Bromide, Carbon, Platinotype and Gas-light Papers. Being a revised edition 
of "Popular Photographic Printing Processes." By Hector Maclean, F.R. P. S, 
ninstrated. Second edition; in paper, price ll;by post 1/1 

All Books are Net. 

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PhotograLphy, Modern, for AmsLteurs. 

A complete and practical little volume of the greatest use to all Photographers 
except those advanced in the Art. By J. Eaton Feakn, completely revised and 
brought up to date by C. Welborne Piper. 

Sixth edition, revised and enlarged ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2, 

Pianos. Tuning aLnd Repa.iring, 

The Amateur's Guide to the Selection and practical Management of a Cottage or 
Orand Piano without the intervention of a Professional. A simply-written but 
most useful manual. By Charles Babbington. 

Third edition, revised and enlarged in paper, price 1/-, 6y post 1/2. 

Picture-Frame MoLkiniE, 

A practical handbook on makinf all kinds of Frames, of Bamboo, Plain, Fretwork, 
or Carved Wood, Leather, &c., suitable for Paintings, Drawings, Photographs, or 
Engravings. By James LUKIN, B.A. Well illustrated. 

In paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Pig. The Book of The. 

A complete and authoritative work on the Varieties, Selection, Breeding, Feeding 
and Management of the Pig ; the treatment of its Diseases ; Slaughtering, and the 
production of Hams, Bacon, and other Pork Foods, &g., &c. With numerous illus- 
trations of Typical animals. Model Piggeries and Appliances. By Professor 
James Long. Second edition, revised throughout ; Ic^ge post 8vo, in waterproof 

material, gilt, price 6/6, by post 6/11. 

Pig Breeding a^nd Feeding. Profit&ble. 

A really practical and clearly written book, on the turning of Pigs — whether one 
keeps many or few— to profitable account. By Thomas Allen (author of '* Small 
Farming that Pays," &c.); with a chapter on Diseases by Harold Leeney, 
M.E.C.V.S. Well illustrated. j„ waterproof material, gilt, price 3/6, by post SfW. 

Pig-Keeping, PracticsLl. 

A manual for Amateurs, based on personal experience, in Breeding, Feeding and 

Fattening ; also in Buying and Selling Pigs at Market Prices. B]r B. D. Garratt. 

Third edition, revised ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Pigeon-Keeping for Amatteurs. 

Detailed descriptions of practically all varieties of Pigeons, both European and 
Asiatic, their Breeding and Management By James C. Ltell (author of '* Fancy 
Pigeons "). Well illustrated. In paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

In cloth gilt, price 2/-, by post 2/3, 

Poker Work. 

Including Coloured Poker Work and Belief Burning. A practical and complete 
guide to the process ; with very numerous illustrations of Tools, Designs, articles 
suitable for ornamentation, Ac, some in colour. 

Fifth edition, revised and enlarged ; denvy 8i)0, in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Polishes Btnd StaLins for Woods. 

A complete guide to all methods of Polishing Woodwork, with directions for 
Staining, and full information for making the Stains, Polishes, &c., in the most 
satisfactory way. By David Denning. /„ paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

PostaLge StaLinps and their Collection. 

A practical guide for all Collectors, on Stamps specially worth looking for, with 
chapters on Postal-Fiscals, Reprints and Forgeries, Postmarks, Surcharges, 4c. 
By Oliver Firth, Member of the Philatelic Societies of Bradford, Leeds, and 
London. With 400 illustrations. In cloth gUt, price 2/6, by post 2/10. 

All Books are Nat. 

Bazaar Buildings, Drury 1/ane, London. 15 

PostaLge PerforsLtion GaLUge, The BenhaLin. 

Every Stamp Collector should have one. Gives Perforations from 7J to 16 
inclusive, with a 4cm. scale accurately marked in Millimetres. Made in polished 
Brass ; firm to handle and a convenient size for the waistcoat pocket. 

Price 1/, by post 1/1. 

PostmaLrks of the British Isles, The History of the 
Carly. From their introduction down to 1840 ; with tables showing the 
various rates of postage from 1660 onwards. Containing 579 facsimile illustrations. 
Compiled chiefly from official records, by JOHN G. Hendy, late Curator of the 
Record Boom, General Post Office. In eloth gUt, price 3/6, hypost 3/10. 

Pottery a.nd, English. 

A very full and practical guide for the Collector, giving the characteristics of the 
chief wares, factory marks, and some present-day values for typical pieces. Hand- 
somely illustrated. By the Ret. B. A Downman, revised by Aubret Qunn. 

Fifth edition, enlarged ; in cloth gilt, price bib, by pott bflO. 

Pouhry a-nd Egg Raising a-t Home. 

A practical work, describing the most suitable Breeds and their Management, and 
showing how Eggs and Poultry may be produced for Home Consumption with 
very little expenditure of time or money. By W. M. Elkington (Author of 
"Poultry for Prizes and Profit," Third edition; Editor ef "The Small-Holder's 
Handbook," iSdc.J. Illustrated. In paper, price IJ-, by post IjZ. 

Poultry-Farming. Profitable. 

Describing the Breeds, and Methods of Management that give the best results, 
and pointing out the mistakes to be avoided. With chapters on Profit and Loss. 
Marketing, &c. By J. H. Sutcliffe (Author of " Incubators and their Manage- 
ment," &0.). In paper, price 1/-, by pott 1/2. 

Poultry for Prizes o.nd Profit. 

A completely up-to-date and practical guide to the Breeding and Management of 
Poultry for Exhibition or Utility. By Prof. James Long; revised throughout by 
W. M. Elkington. Magnificently illustrated. 

Third edition ; in cloth gilt, price 6/-, by post 6/4. 
Also in Two Divisions : 

Poultry for Prizes. 

A standard work on the Points, Breeding and Management of Exhibition Stock. 
With excellent illustrations, including reproductions from actual Feathers of 
Bzhibition Birds, showing Markings most to be desired for Prize Specimens. 

Third edition ; in cloth gilt, price 3/-, by poet 3/3. 

Poultry for Profit. 

The Incubation, Bearing and Management of the Utility Breeds of Poultry, with 
chapters on Marketing; the Treatment for Diseases and Parasites, &c. Ex- 
cellently illustrated. Third edition ; in cloth gilt, price 3/-, by post 3/3. 

Poultry Incubators, see aiuJer ' incubators.' 

Poultry Keeping, Popular. 

A practical and complete guide to Breeding and Keeping Poultry for Eggs or for 
the Table ■ with a Chapter on the Diseases of Poultry. Thoroughly revised by 
by W M. Elkington (Author of "Poultry for Prizes and Profit," Ac). Well 
illustrated. Fifth edition ; tn paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Print Restora^tion atnd Picture CleaLnin^. 

A very valuable and practical work, with chapters on Defective Prints— removing 
Varnish and Marks, repairing holes, &o.— Fakes, Reprints, and Eeprodnctions; 
Water-colour Drawings ; and Oil-Paintings. By Maurice James Gunn. With 18 
full page plates. ^'"^1 ^™y 8™. •» ototh gilt, price 6/b, by pott b/10. 

All Books are Net, 

16 PuhUshecC by L. Upcott Gill, 

Press Work for Women. 

Jl practicxl euide to the Baeinnm : What to Write, how to Write it, stnd where to 
Send it; with chapters on Proof Correcting, Remuaeration, &e. By Frances H. 
Low. In paper, price 1/; iy post 1/2. 

RaLbbits, The\ent of. 

Containing; full directions for the proper Management of Fancy Babhita in Health 
aha Disease, for Pets or for the Market. By Chas. Batson, revised br Merkdith 
Fradd (Late Vice-President, United Kingdom Babbit Club, &c.). Well illus- 
trated. Third edition, revited and enlarged ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Roses for AmaLteurs. 

A thoroughly practioal guide to the selection and cultivation of the best Rosea 
for garden deceration and exhibition. By the Bet. J. Hontwood D'Ombrain 
(late Hon. Sec. Nat. Bose Soc), reTised and enlarged, with a chapter on 
injurious Insects and Fungi, by W. D. Drdry, F.E.H.S., F.E.S. Fully illustrated. 

Third edition ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Rubber. Pa.raL R.ubber in th* MatlaLy Peninsula.. 

Practical information regarding the cuItiTation of Para Bubber (Hevea 
BrasUiensia), with estimates of annual expenditure and returns. By W. F. C. 
ASIHONT. In cloth gilt, price 2/6, by pott 2/8. 

Sa^iling Tours. 

The Yachting Man's guide to the cruising waters of the Engliab and adjacent 
Coasts ; describing every Creek, Harbour, and Boidstead on the course. By 
Frank Cowper, M.A. (Author of "Taehting and Cruising for Amateurs"). 
With coloarad charts showing Deep Water, Shoals, and Sanaa expeied at Low 
water, with soundings. This invaluable series should be in every Yachtsman's 
and Cruiser's Library, being eminently pmctical, and written by an enthusiastic 
and successful amateur single-handed Cruiser, 

Vol.1. The East Coast: The coasts of Essex and Suffolk, from the 
Thames to Aldborongh. Six Charts. Published at 5/-. Out of Print. 

Vol. II. The South Coast : From the Nore to the Scilly Isle.s. Twenty- 
five Charts. Third edition, completely revised ; in waterproof 

material, gilt, price Ijh, by post jflO. 
Vol. III. The West Coast ef France : The coast of Brittany, from 
L'Abervrach to St. Nazaire and the Loire. Twelve Charts. 

In waterproof material, price 7/6, by post 7/10. 
Vol, IV. The West Coast, and the East Coast of Ireland : The 
Irish Sea and adjacent waters from Land's End to Mull of Galloway. 
Thirty Charts. Published at 10/6. Out of Print. 

Vol.V. The Coasts of Scotland and N. E. England down to Aldborough. 
Forty Charts. In cloth gilt, price 10/6, by post 10/10. 

SoLlling. See also under " Bosit Sa,i\iDg," "Yachting." 

Sea.-Fishing for Amateurs. 

A practical book on Fishing from Shore, Bocks or Piers ; with a Directory of 
Fishing Stations on the English and Welsh Coasts. Illustrated by numerous 
Charts showing the best spots of the Various Kinds of Fish, position of Bocks Ac. 
By Frank Hddson. 

SecoTid edition, revised <fe enlarged ; in paper, price If-, by post 1 2. 

SeaL-Fishing, PraLCtical. 

A copiously illustrated and comprehensive guide to all that is worth knowing 
concerning the best Tackle, the Varieties of Fish, and the most successful 
methods of Sea Angling on our Coasts. With 11 page Plates and numerous 
Engravings in the Text. By P. L, Haslope. In cloth gUt, price l;6, by post i/9. 

Sea-Fishing. See oiso under "Angling." 

All Books are Net. 

Bazaar Buildings, Vrury Lane, London. 17 

SesL Terms, A DictionaLry of. 

An Invaluable Befcrenca Book, which should be in the library of all Yachtsmen, 
Amateur Boatmen, and others interested in Ships or in the Sea. By A. Anstbd. 
Very fully Illustrated. In cloth gilt, price 5/-, by post 5/4. 

Sheet Meta.1, Working in. 

A useful little book on the making and mending of small articles in Tin, Copper, 
Iron. Zinc and Brass. By the Kbt. J. LuKIN, B.A. Illustrated. 

Third edition ; in paper, price 1/-, 6y post 1/1. 

Shooting, Mixed &nd Rough. 

A Book for the Man ef Moderate Sfeans ; dealing with the ' Bou|;h ' Shooting and 
its improTsment ; Partridges, Pheasants, Ground Game ; Poachers, Vermin ; 
Orouse, Wildfowl, Snipe ; Shosting-Dogs, Ouns and Ammunition, and other 
valuable information. By Frank BoNNETT (" East Sussex.") Illustrated. 

In the press. In clsth gilt, price 6/-, by post 6/4. 

Skating CtiLrd Booklet. 

An easy method of learning Figure Skating, as the Booklet can be used on the ice. 

By W. Grosley. niustrated throughout. Of a convenient size for carrying in 

the hand. In paper, price 1/- by post 1/2. 

SmcLll-Holder's Ha.ndbook, The, 

A concise but complete and clear work on the management of Farm and Garden 
Crops, Dairy Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Poultry, Bees, Ac, for profit. Everyone living in 
the country skould have this nook, with its valuable bints en the practical and 
remunerative sides of these subjects. By W. M. Blkinqton, assisted by 
SFECIA.LISTS. Fully illustrated. 

Largepost Qvo, in waterproof 'material, price 3/6, by post 3/10. 
Solo Whist. 
A complete guide to the principles and play of the game, its whys and wherefores. 
Clearly tanght by reason instead of by rvZe, on the saMe popular lines as 
"Bridge" and "Scientific Whist," and by the same Author. C. J. Melrose. 
With illustrative hands in colour. In cloth gilt, price 3/6, by post 3A0. 

Sporting-Books, llIustrsLted. 

and their values. A descriptive survey of English illustrated works of a Sporting 
character; with an Appendix on Prints relating to Sports. By J. Hekbert 
Slater (Author of "Engravings and their Value," Ac.) Many a valuable old 
book or print has been thrown away for want of just such information as this 
work gives. in cloth gilt, price 5/-, by post 5/4. 

Swimming for Wonnen a.nd Girls. 

An instructive, easily understood and practical manual ; with special chapters on 
Dress and Training by a Lady Champion Swimmer. Splendidly Illustrated from 
photographs. By COLIN Hamilton. Second edition. In paper, price If-, by postVZ. 

To-xidermy, Pro-ctica-l. 

A complete guide to the Amateur in Collecting, Modelling, Preserving and 
Setting-up Birds, Mammals, Fish, Reptiles and Insects. By Montago Browne, 
F.Z.S., Late Curator of Leicester Museum. Illustrated throughout. 

Second edition, enlarged ; in cloth giU, price 7/6, by post 7/10. 

Te n n is. See under" Lawn Tennis. ' 

Terriers. British. 

A comprehensive book on the most popular of all Classes of Dogs : theirBreeding, 
Management and Training for Show or Work. By J. Maxtee (Author of 
"Popular Dog-Keeping"; Editor of "British Dogs," (So., 4c.). Thoroughly 
Illustrated. In waterproof material, gilt, price 3/-, by post 3/3, 

Also in Two Parts as follow 

Terriers. English a.nd Welsh. 

Descrlbinr; in a very practical manner and in detail the various Breeds, their Uses. 
Points and Show Preparation. An excellent book for the Dog-lover. Well 
illustrated. In paper pricelt;by post\l2, 

AH Books are N0t. 

18 Published by L. Upcott Gill, 

Terriers, Scotch aLnd Irish. 

Their History, Breeding and Management ; with specially valuable chapters on 
the Housing, Training and Minor Diseases of Terriers in general. Well illus- 
trated. In paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. Culture for AmsLteurs. 

Dealing with its propagation ; cultivation in the open and under glass ; vegetable 
and animal pests; varieties; and marketing. By B. C. Bavenscroft. Illustrated. 

Third edition ; in paper, price 1/-, by poet 1/2. 

Trapping, PraLCticatl. 

Traps and Trapping for Vermin, with directions for general Trapping and Snaring 
Birds, and Catcning Babbits, Eats, Cats, Otters, &o. By W. Carneqie (" Moor- 
man " — author of ** Practical Game Preserving") Illustrated. 

Third edition, revised and enta/rged ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Tricks thsLt Anyone Ca-n Do. 

A. collection of interesting and amusing Tricks, such as with Matches, Paper, &c., 
not requiring a knowledge of " Sleights " and elaborate apparatus ; with simple 
but very good Amateur '^Stage" Tricks. By MOKLEY Adams. Illustrated. 

In paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Tuning a.rvd RepSLiring PiaLnos. See under "Pianos." 

Vaimp, How to. 

A practical guide to extemporising an accompaniment to any Song ; for the un- 
Bkilled Musician. With examples. By J. F. Eowbotham. 

In paper, price 9d., by post lOd. 

Vegetable Culture for Amateurs. 

How to ensure good crops. A full and concise guide to the Cultivation, Varieties, 
Storing, Manures, Pests, &c., of all the useful Vegetables ; with a Monthly 
Calendar of Operations in the Kitchen Oarden. Thoroughly up-to-date. By 
Tbbvor Monmouth. Well Illustrated. 

Third edition ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

VegetCLbles, Intensive Culture of (French Systenv). 

A very practical book on Planning and Managing a French Qardea for the 
Cultivation of Vegetables and Saladings ; with a valuable Monthly Calendar of 
Operations, and special chapters on Seed Saving, Pests, and growing Melons, 
Cucumbers and Mushrooms. Illustrated. By the recognised authority, Mens. 
P. Aquatias (late French Gardener to A. J. MotYNKUX.) 

Demy 8vo, in waterproof material gUt, price 3/6, by post 3/10. 

Ventriloquism, PraLCticBLl. 

A thoroughly reliable guide to acquiring the Art of Voice Throwing ; with direc- 
tions for Vocal Mimicry, Vocal Instrumentation, Ventriloqual Figures,Entertaining, 
&o. By BOBERI Ganthony. Numerous illustrations. 

In paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Violins, 'Cellos, &c„ Adiusting CLnd R.epaLiring. 

A very practical and clearly-written handbook, which should be in the Hands of all 
Players, describing the Bestoring of all imperfect or damaged Instrumt nts. By 
Arthur Broadley. Illustrated. In paper, price 1/-, by Mat 1/2. 

Viva.rium, The 

Its Construction, Arrangement and Management. The varieties of Tortoises, 
Lizards, Snakes, Frogs, Newts, &c., most suitable as pets, and how to keep them 
satisfactorily in confinement. By the Bet G. C. Bateman (Author of "Fresh- 
water Aquaria "). Beautifully illustrated. j„ cloth gilt, price 7/6, by post 7/10. 

War Medatls ^nd DecorsLtions. 

Issued to the British Naval and Military Forces from 15B8 to 1910. The standard 
work. A guide for Collectors. By D. Hastings Irwin. With 18 plates giving 
60 facsimile illustrations of Medals, Bars and Crosses, besides engravings in the 
text. Fourth edition, corrected and enlarged; in cloth gilt, priee 15/-, by pott 15/5. 

All Books are Net. 

Bazaar Buildings, Drury Lane, London. 19 

Welsh MountCkineering. See under "MountaineerinK." 

Whippet or RoLce-Dog. The. 

How to Breed, Bear and Train th* Whippet for Baces or for Exhibition ; the 
Management of Kace Meetings, with original Plans of Courses. By Fkbemam 
Lloyd. Illustrated. Second edition ; in paper, priee 1/-, iy poit 1/2, 

Whist, Good, and How to Play it. 

Explaining which Cards to Lead and to Follow- on with ; " calling" for Trumps ; 
Strategy in Whist ; "placing" the cards ; and especially how to understand your 
Partner's and Opponents' game. A very useful book, particularly for all who attend 
Whist Drirea. By W. G. Cordinglet. jn paptr, priee 1/-, ly post 1/2. 

Whist, Solo, See under "Solo Whist." 

Whist. Scientific. 

A practical book, girlng clearly the reasons why of the play, and thus proving of 
particular value to players. With illustrative hands in colours. By C. J. MELROSE. 
(Author of "Bridge," "Solo Whist," dec). /„ eloth gilt, price 3/», by post 3/10. 

Wildfowling, PraLCticaLi. 

A complete guide to the Art of the Fowler— the Outfit and Accessories required, 
all information a.s to Decoying, Stalking and fShooting, and with full descriptions 
of the various birds usually met with. By W. T. Fallon. Profusely illustrated. 
Second edition, revised and erUarged ; in waterproof rexine, gilt^ 

price 6/., iy post 6/4. 
Window Ticket Writing. 
Mixing and using the various Inks, Colours, Varnishes, <Sc., required; Stencilling 
and Litho Printing as applied to Ticket Writing ; Cutting-out and Backing-up 
Transparencies ; Writing on Glass ; Japanning on Tin, Ac. A book especially 
written for the use of Learners and Shop Assistants. By Wm. C. SCOTT. Illus- 
trated. In paper, priee Ij; t^ post yZ. 

Wood Carving for Amateurs, 

The Tools and most suitable Woods for Carving, and how to produce all Varieties 
of Carvings, including Chip Carving. A very practical book, fully illustrated 
with a large number of engravings of Tools, and Designs for Carving. Edited and 
revised by David Denning. Second edition ; in paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Workshop Makeshifts. 

Really practical hints and suggestions to the Amateur for overcoming workshop 
difficulties : Including the making of a Lathe, and Tools for Wood or Metal 
Working. By H. J. S. Cassal (Author of " Glues and Cements," " Simple Forge 
Work," (6c.). Fully illustrated. In cloth gUt, price 2/5, by post 2/10. 


In the Catch-Hold and Graeco-Boman Styles. A practical handbook on the 
Sport, with lucid descriptions and excellent illustrations. By Percy Longhurst 
(Winner, Light-weight Competition G.G.S., 1899 ; Author of " Jiu-Jitsu ") 

In paper, price 1/-, by post 1/2. 

Wrestling. See dUo "Jiu-jitsu." 

Yachting and Crvising for Amateurs. 

Clear and very practical directions upon all matters connected with Fore-and-aft 
Sailing Boats ; with detailed suggested Cruises round the British and adjacent 
coasts. A book for every Cruiser's library. By Frank Cowper (Author of 
*' Sailing Tours," Ac, &c.). Profusely illustrated. 

Large post Svo, in waterproof material, gilt, price 5/-, by post 5/4.. 

Yachting. &e(iteo««id«r "Boat Sailing" and "Sailing." 

All Books are Net 

In the best interests of 
yourself and your pets 


when purchasing foods for 


^ No biscuit is a genuine Spratt's production if not 
^ stamped with the name and Trade Mark "X," and 
no meal or food unless it is supplied in a Sealed Bag 
or Original Packet plainly printed "Spratt's." 

We shall be pleased to send you one of our interesting books on 
Does, Poultry, or Cage Birds (published at 6d. each) and samples 
of tooda suitable for your Pets or Poultry on receipt of particulars 
of varieties kept, and three penny stamps to cover ooit of packing 
and postage. 

24/25 Fenchurch Street, London, E.C. 

L. Upcott Gill * son. Ltd., PRtMTfciiB, Drury lank. London. 





Price 17s. per cwt., bag included. 
Special Quotation for 5 cwt. and 1 ton lots. Carriage Paid. 

WORM PILLS, for Dogs. 
ECZEMA PILLS, for Dogs. 
TONIC PILLS, for Dogs. 

Aboue Preparations, Is. per Bottle; post free, Is. Id. 


1s. 4d. per Bottle, post free. 


2d. per Packet. Sample Packets free by Parcel Post, 2s. 9d. per doz 



Dog and Pheasant Food Manufacturers, 




THE RIgHT food 



DOG FEEDING on the right lines is no haphazard 
undertaking, It demands experience, judgment, 
and careful consideration of the health-giving 
and sustaining qualities of the food you supply your 
dog. It further demands that you select exclusively 
the food that, by practical demonstration alone, has 
been proved a suitable diet, one that bears the 
— Name and well-known Trade Mark X of — 




Spratt's"Meat Fibrine" Dog Cakes as the staple diet 
with medium "Rodnim" or "Weetmeet" as a change 

GIVE SMALL Spratt's "Meat Fibrine" Puppy Biscuits as the Staple 
BREEDS diet, with fine "Rodnim" or "Weetmeet" as a change 

GIVE Spratt's " Meat Fibrine " Terrier, or. Malt and Cod 

MEDIUM Liver Oil Biscuits as the staple diet, with medium 

, BREEDS " Rodnim " or " Weetmeet " as a change. 

GIVE TOY Spratt's " Midgets," deliciously crisp and dainty, and 

VARIETIES made m five varieties. Spratt's Pet or Toy-Pet 

Biscuits should be given as a change, 

Nothing to equal them in quality. About 240 to the lb. 
Sold Everywhere. 


24-25, Fencliurcli Street, London, E.C